عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسندگان [English]چکیده [English]
The purpose of this study was to show types and extent of offensive behaviors at soccer stadiums and to test the relationship between personal factors, spectators, verbal behavior of stadium executives and staff, sport media biases, modeling from famous team spectators, refereeing the matches, and win-oriented spectators with offensive behavior of the spectators. A total of 727 researcher-made questionnaires were randomly distributed and collected in last 10 sensitive matches of Iran soccer premier league using cluster sampling. Correlation coefficient and multi regression analysis were used to analyze the data. Results showed that verbally offensive behaviors such as motto against players and fans of competitors and trumpet on streets were more prevalent than violence. Causes of spectators' offensive behaviors were analyzed and discussed.