تأثیر افزایش وزن اندام بر بخش‏های پیش‏حرکتی و حرکتی زمان واکنش ساده و افتراقی مردان جوان و مسن

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دورۀ دکتری، گروه رفتار حرکتی، دانشکدة تربیت بدنی، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

2 دانشیار، گروه رفتار حرکتی، دانشکدة تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران.

چکیده

تأثیر وزن و نیرو از عوامل مهم سازماندهی و اجرای تکالیف زمان واکنش است. افراد مسن با افزایش وزن با این متغیر درگیرند. هدف از تحقیق حاضر، بررسی تأثیر افزایش وزن اندام بر بخش­های پیش­حرکتی و حرکتی زمان واکنش ساده و افتراقی مردان جوان و مسن است. از آزمودنی­ها (16 نفر گروه جوان و 16 نفر گروه مسن) خواسته شد تا در پاسخ به محرک­های شنیداری (ساده و افتراقی)، حرکت فلکشن ساعد را انجام دهند. در 50 درصد از کوشش­های انجام­گرفته وزن اندام 2/1 کیلوگرم افزایش یافت و در همة کوشش­های انجام­گرفته، زمان واکنش و تنش عضلانی به‌وسیلة دستگاه الکترومیوگرام ثبت شد. نتایج آزمون تحلیل نشان داد که تأثیرات اصلی هر سه فاکتور افزایش وزن اندام، افزایش تعداد محرک و سن بر بخش پیش­حرکتی معنادار است. در بخش حرکتی، اثر افزایش تعداد محرک از حالت ساده به افتراقی معنادار نبود‌ (77/0 = P). با این حال تأثیرات تعاملی بین افزایش وزن اندام و سن معنادار بود (002/0 = P). این یافته­ها بیان می­کنند عواملی که موجب تغییر در اینرسی اندام و به‌طور کلی عوامل حرکتی می­شوند، علاوه­بر درگیر کردن بخش حرکتی، همزمان بخشی از فرایندهای پیش­حرکتی را نیز تحت تأثیر قرار می­دهند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effect of Limb Weight Gain on Premotor and Motor Components of Simple and Discriminative Reaction Time in Young and Elderly Men

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ahmad Nikravan 1
  • Rasool Hemayat talab 2
  • Fazlollah Bagherzadeh 2
1 . PhD Student, Motor Behavior Department, Faculty of Human Sciences, University of Semnan, Semnan, Iran
2 Associate Professor, Motor Behavior Department, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Abstract
The effect of weight and force is one of the most important factors to organize and perform reaction time (RT) tasks. The elderly are involved in this variable when they gain weight. The present study was designed to examine the effect of limb weight gain on premotor and motor components of simple and discriminative reaction time in young and elderly men. Subjects (16 young and 16 elderly) were asked to perform forearm flexion in response to auditory (simple and discriminative) stimuli. The weight of the involved limb increased (1.2 kg) in 50% of trials and reaction time and muscle tension were measured by electromyogram apparatus in all trials. The results showed that the main effects of all three factors of limb weight gain, increasing number of stimuli and age on premotor component were significant. The effect of the increased number of stimuli from simple to discriminative was not significant in the motor component (P=0.77). However, the interactive effects between limb weight gain and age was significant (P=0.002). These results suggested that those variables that cause variation in limb inertia and generally motor components not only involve motor component but also influence a part of premotor processes simultaneously.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Contraction Force
  • Discriminative
  • Electromyography
  • Motor Time
  • Premotor Time
  • Reaction Time
  • Simple
  • Stimulus–Response
 

منابع  و ﻣآﺧﺬ

1. Anson, J. G. (1977). "Memory drum theory: alternative tests and explanations for the complexity effects on simple reaction time". J. of Motor Behavior, 14, PP: 228-246.

2. Anson, J. G. (1989). "Effect of movement of inertia on simple reaction time". J. of Motor Behavior, 21, PP: 60-71.

3. Baba, D. M. and Marteniuk, R. G. (1983). "Timing and torque involvement in the organization of a rapid forearm flexion". J. of Quarterly Experimental Psychology, 35A, PP:323-331.

4. Brauer, SG. Burns, Y. and Galley, P.(2000). "A prospective study of laboratory and clinical balance measure as risk factors for falls in the community – dwelling elderly". J. of Gerontol, PP:55A, M469-76

5. Brisswalter, J. Arcelin, R. Audiffren, M. and Delignieres, D. (1997). "Influence of physical exercise on simple reaction time: Effect of physcial fitness". J. of Percept, Mot, Skills, 85, PP:1019-1027.

6. Canic, M. J. and Franks, L. M. (1989). "Response preparation and latency in patterns of tapping movements". J. of Human Movement Science, 8, PP: 123-139.

7. C. Tandonnet, B. Burle, F. Vidal, and T. Hasbroucq (2003). "The influence of time preparation on motor processes assessed by surface laplacian estimation". J. of Clinical Neurophysiology,. 114, 12, PP: 2316- 2384.

8. Christina, R. W., Fischman, M. G. Lambert, A. L. and Moore, J. F. (1985). "Simple reaction time as a function of response complexity: christina et al (1982). Revisited". J. of Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport (RQES), 56(4), PP: 316-322.

9. Christina, R. W. and Rose, D. J. (1985). "Premotor and motor reaction time as a function of response complexity". J. of Research Quaterly for Exercise and Sport (RQSE), 56 (4), PP:306-315.

10. Davranche K. Burle, B. Audiffren, M. and Hasbroucq, T. (2006). "Physical exercise facilitates motor processes in simple reaction time performance: An electromyographic analysis". J. of Neuroscience Letters, 396, PP:54-56.

11. Donders, F. C. (1969). "On the speed of metnal process". J. of Acta Psychological 30 Attention andPperformance (W. G. Koster, ed), PP:412-431.

12. Duan, V. Knudson and Craig, S. Morrison (2002). "Qualitative analysis of human movement". Second edition, Human Kinetics, PP: 102-108.

13. Fishman, M. G. (1984). "Programming time as a function of number of movement parts and changes in movement direction". J. of Motor Behavior, 16, PP:405-423.

14. Glencross, D. J. (1972). "Latency and response complexity". J. of Motor Behavior, 4, PP: 448-458.

15. Glencross, D.J. (1973). "Response complexity and the latency of different movement patterns". J. of Motor Behavior, 5, PP:95-104.

16. Henry, Franklin. M. and Rogers, Donald, E. (1960). "Increased response latency for complicated movements and a memory drum theory of neuromotor reaction". J. of Research Quarterly of the American Association for Health, Physical Education and Recreation, 31, 1960. PP: 448-458.

17. Hurd, W. J. Chmielewski, T. L. and Snyder – Mackler, L. (2006). "Perturbation – enhanced neuromuscular training alters muscle activity in female athletes". J. of Knee Surg, Sports Traumatol, Arthrosc, 14, PP: 60-9.

18. J. Botwinic, and L. W. Tompson (1966). "Premotor and motor components of reaction time". J. of Experimental Psychology, 71, 1, PP: 9-15.

19. Jevas, S. and J. H. Yan. (2001). "The effect of aging on cognitive function: a preliminary quantitative review". J. of Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 72P: A -49.

20. Kasai, T. and Komiyama T. (1990). "Effects of varying force components on EMG – RT of isometric ankle dorsiflexion". J. of Human Movement Science, 9, PP:133-147.

21. Kasai, T. and Seki, H.(1992). "Motor reaction times of the simple and the choice ballistic elbow extention – flextion as a function of response complexity". J. of Human Movement science, 11, PP:319-334.

22. Klapp, S. T. (1977). "Reaction time analysis of programmed control". J. of Exercise and Sport Science Researches, 5, PP:231-253.

23. Klapp, S. T. (1981). "Motor programming is not the only process which can influence RT: some thoughts on the martiniuke and mackenzie analysis". J. of Motor Behavior. 13, PP:150-158.

24. Klapp, S. T. and Ervin, C. I. (1976). "Relation between programming time and duration of the response being programmed". J. of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 105, pp:591-598.

25. Klemmer, E. T. (1967). "Rate of force application ina simple reaction time test". J. of Applied Psychology 41, PP:329-332.

26. Kosinski Robert, J. (2008). "A literature review on reaction time". J. of Clemson University, 10, PP: 1-13.

27. Lajoie, Y. and S. P. Gallagher, (2004). "Prediciting falls within the elderly community: comparison of postural sway, reaction time, the Berg balance scale and the activities – specific balance confidence (ABC) scale for comparing fallers and non – fallers". Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics,38 (1),PP:11-25.

28. Lord, SR. Clarke RD, and Webster IW. (1991). "Physiological factors associated with falls in an elderly population". J. of Am Geriatr Soc, 39, PP:1194-200.

29. Ma H. I., and trombly C. A. (2004). "Effects of task complexity on reaction time and movement kinematics in elderly people". American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 58, PP:150-158.

30. Nagazaki, H. Aoki, F. and Nakamura, R. (1983). "Premotor and motor reaction time as a function of force output". J. of Perceptual and Motor Skills, 57, PP:859-867.

31. Ozden, O-T. Zafer, G. Nesrin, B. and Mehmet, B. (2008). "The effect of a single session sub – maximal aerobic exercise on premotor fraction of reaction time: An electromyographic study". J. of Clincial Biomechanics, 23, PP:231 – 253.

32. Quin, J. T. Schmidt, R. A. Zelaznik, H. N. Hawkons, B. and Mcfarguhar, R. (1980). "Target size influences on reaction time with movement time controlled". J. of Motor Behavior, 12, PP: 239-261.

33. Rose, S. A., J. F. Feldman, J.J. Jankowski, and D. M. Caro (2002). "A longitudinal study of visual expectation and reaction time in the first year of life". J. of Child Development, 73 (1),P: 47.

34. Salthouse, T. A. and Heden, T. (2002). "Interpreting reaction time measures in between – group comparisons". J. of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 24: 7, PP:858-872.

35. Sandra, G. B. and Yvonne, R. B. (2002). "The influence of preparedness on rapid stepping in young and older adults". J. of Clinical Rehabilitation, 16, PP:741-748.

36. Schmidt, R. A. and Lee T. D. (2011). "Motor control and learning: a behavioral emphasis". 5th edition, Human Kinetics, PP: 21-93.

37. Scott, G.M. Bhushan, B. and Sarah M. L. (2010). "Lower limb muscle premotor time measures during a choice reaction task associate with knee abduction loads during dynamic single leg landing". J. of Clinical Biomechanics, 25, 6, PP:563-569.

38. Siegel, D. (1986). "Movement duration, fractionated reaction time and response programming". J. of Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 57, PP:128-131.

39. Spehar, B. and Kolesaric V. (2010). "The effects of stimulus context on components of simple reaction time". J. of Review of Psychology, 17, 1,PP: 59-67.

40. Spijkers, W. A. C. (1987). "Programming of direction and velocity of an aiming movement: The effect of probability and response – spicificity". J. of Acta Psyhologica, 65, PP: 285-304.

41. Weiss, AD. (1965). "The locus of reaction time change with sex, motivation and age". J. of Gerontology, 20, PP: 60-64.