عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسندگان [English]چکیده [English]
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of variability of attentional focus distance by self-talk on the learning of table tennis forehand in. After pretest, the participants performed 180 forehand strokes during 6 sessions with repeating the words “slightly rotation” in the internal focus group “slightly open” in the near external focus group, “over the net ” in the far external focus group, and each of the words “slightly rotation, slightly open, and over the net ” respectively in each 2 sessions in the increasing distance of attentional focus group. Control group performed without self-talk during acquisition phase. Retention test was performed 48 hours after acquisition test in the same situation without self-talk, and after break, transfer test was done by changing the direction of target (parallel forehand) without self-talk. The accuracy and the pattern of forehand strokes were measured by a 5 point-scale (Liao and Masters, 2001) and researcher-made scale, respectively) .According to the results of 2-factor mixed ANOVA, acquisition, retention, and transfer of forehand accuracy in internal focus of attention group were significantly lower than other groups (p<0.05).Furthermore, the effect of increasing attentional focus distance on acquisition of forehand pattern was significant. The effect of near external attentional focus on retention of pattern was significant. But transfer of stroke pattern in control group was significantly more than far external focus group (p<0.05). Thus, it is recommended to use self-talk by increasing attentional focus and near external attentional focus and not to use internal focus of attention to instruct forehand to novice adolescents.