تأثیر کانون توجه درونی و بیرونی بر اکتساب، یادداری و انتقال پرتاب دارت در کودکان کم‌توان ذهنی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری یادگیری حرکتی، گروه رفتار حرکتی، دانشکدۀ تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه ارومیه، ارومیه، ایران

2 استادیار روان‌شناسی ورزشی، گروه رفتار حرکتی، دانشکدۀ تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه ارومیه، ارومیه، ایران

چکیده

هدف از تحقیق حاضر، بررسی تأثیر کانون توجه بر یادگیری پرتاب دارت در کودکان کم‌توان ذهنی بود. در این مطالعۀ شبه‌تجربی، 22 پسر 10 تا 12 سالۀ کم­توان ذهنی براساس هوشبهر 70 - 50 به‌صورت تصادفی انتخاب و پس از یک جلسه تمرین و پیش­آزمون، براساس امتیاز به‌دست‌آمده، سن و هوشبهر در دو گروه توجه (درونی، بیرونی) همسان قرار گرفتند. افراد، 5 بلوک و هر بلوک 8 پرتاب را تمرین کردند. از آزمون­های تحلیل واریانس دوطرفۀ مکرر و تحلیل واریانس استفاده شد. در مرحلۀ یادداری، هر دو گروه در پرتاب­ها دقت خود را افزایش دادند و در اثر تمرین، تغییرپذیری (044/0= P) و دقت پرتاب­ها (047/0= P) کاهش یافت. در مرحلۀ انتقال، گروه توجه درونی قادر به انتقال مهارت به شرایط جدید نبودند، ولی گروه تمرین متغیر در انتقال مهارت خود به شرایط جدید موفق بودند. همچنین گروه توجه بیرونی نسبت به گروه توجه درونی تغییرپذیری (049/0= P) کمتر و دقت (048/0= P) بیشتری داشتند. براساس یافته­های تحقیق، گروه توجه بیرونی قادر به یادداری و انتقال مهارت به شرایط جدید بودند که فرضیۀ عمل محدودشدۀ ولف و همکاران (2001) در افراد کم‌توان ذهنی نیز تأیید می‌شود.
 
 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effect of Internal and External Focus of Attention on Acquisition, Retention and Transfer of Dart Throwing in Mentally Retarded Children

نویسندگان [English]

  • Maryam Lotfi 1
  • Jalal Dehghanizade 1
  • Fateme sadat Hosseini 2
1 PhD Student of Motor Learning, Department of Motor Behavior, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran
2 Assistant Professor of Sport Psychology, Department of Motor Behavior, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran
چکیده [English]

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of focus of attention on learning dart throwing in mentally retarded children.In this quasi-experimental study, 22 mentally retarded boys (age 10-12 years old) were randomly selected according to IQ (50-70) and were assigned to two homogenous attention (internal, external) groups after the pretest and a training session according to the obtained scores, age and IQ. The subjects practiced in 5 blocks and each block 8 throws. Two-way analysis of variance with repeated measures and ANOVA were used to analyze data. In retention phase, both groups increased accuracy in their throwing (P=0.044). Variability (P=0.044) and throwing accuracy (P=0.047) decreased due to the training. In transfer phase, internal focus group could not transfer skill to new conditions while variable group succeeded to transfer their skill to new conditions. Also, external focus group had lower variability (P=0.049) and higher accuracy (P=0.048) than internal focus group. According to the findings, external focus group was able to retain and transfer skills to new situations which confirmed constrained action hypothesis (Wulf et al., 2001) in mentally retarded individuals.
 
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • dart throwing
  • external attention
  • internal attention
  • mentally retarded
  • motor learning
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