عنوان مقاله [English]
The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between dimensions of competitive perfectionism and physiological responses of elite male fencers. This study was descriptive – correlation and the population consisted of male fencers. The data were collected from 46 fencers who participated in national championships and selected by convenience sampling method. To assess dimensions of competitive perfectionism, the subjects were required to complete Competitive Perfectionism Scale of Besharat (2004). The physiological responses including saliva cortisol and immunoglobulin were measured by 96-test kits of cortisol and saliva immunoglobulin A manufactured by the Zell Bio Company. Results showed a significant positive relationship between negative competitive perfectionism and increased saliva cortisol and decreased saliva immunoglobulin before competition. Whereas there was no significant relationship between positive competitive perfectionism and any of physiological responses. Results also revealed that negative competitive perfectionism can predict the changes of saliva cortisol and saliva immunoglobulin in fencers.
5. Acevedo, E. O., & Ekkekakis, P. (2006). “Psychobiology of physical activity”: Human Kinetics.
6. Altstötter-Gleich, C., Gerstenberg, F. X., & Brand, M. (2012). “Performing well–Feeling bad? Effects of perfectionism under experimentally induced stress on tension and performance”. Journal of Research in Personality, 46(5), 619-622.
7. Bibbey, A., Carroll, D., Ginty, A. T., & Phillips, A. C. (2015). “Cardiovascular and Cortisol Reactions to Acute Psychological Stress Under Conditions of High Versus Low Social Evaluative Threat: Associations With the Type D Personality Construct”. Psychosomatic Medicine, 77(5), 599-608.
8. Brehm, B. (2014). “Psychology of Health and Fitness: FA Davis”.
9. Butler, J. E., Sun, J., Wertz, N., & Sinkora, M. (2006). “Antibody repertoire development in swine”. Developmental & Comparative Immunology, 30(1), 199-221.
10. Campbell, J., & Ehlert, U. (2012). “Acute psychosocial stress: does the emotional stress response correspond with physiological responses?” Psychoneuroendocrinology, 37(8), 1111-1134.
11. Carroll, D., Phillips, A. C., & Der, G. (2008). “Body mass index, abdominal adiposity, obesity, and cardiovascular reactions to psychological stress in a large community sample”. Psychosomatic Medicine, 70(6), 653-660.
12. Escribano, D., Gutiérrez, A., Subiela, S. M., Tecles, F., & Cerón, J. (2012). “Validation of three commercially available immunoassays for quantification of IgA, IgG, and IgM in porcine saliva samples”. Research in veterinary science, 93(2), 682-687.
13. Federenko, I. S., Nagamine, M., Hellhammer, D. H., Wadhwa, P. D., & Wüst, S. (2004). “The heritability of hypothalamus pituitary adrenal axis responses to psychosocial stress is context dependent”. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 89(12), 6244-6250.
14. Filaire, E., Alix, D., Ferrand, C., & Verger, M. (2009). “Psychophysiological stress in tennis players during the first single match of a tournament”. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 34(1), 150-157.
15. Finlay, M. C., Lambiase, P. D., Ben-Simon, R., & Taggart, P. (2016). “Effect of mental stress on dynamic electrophysiological properties of the endocardium and epicardium in humans”. Heart Rhythm, 13(1), 175-182.
16. Flett, G. L., & Hewitt, P. L. (2005). “The perils of perfectionism in sports and exercise”. Current directions in psychological science, 14(1), 14-18.
17. Gaab, J., Rohleder, N., Nater, U., & Ehlert, U. (2005). “Psychological determinants of the cortisol stress response: the role of anticipatory cognitive appraisal”. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 30(6), 599-610.
18. Gould, D., Dieffenbach, K., & Moffett, A. (2002). “Psychological characteristics and their development in Olympic champions” Journal of applied sport psychology, 14(3), 172-204.
19. Greenspon, T. S. (2000). “Healthy Perfectionism” is an Oxymoron!: Reflections on the Psychology of Perfectionism and the Sociology of Science”. Prufrock Journal, 11(4), 197-208.
20. Hackett, R. A., Lazzarino, A. I., Carvalho, L. A., Hamer, M., & Steptoe, A. (2015). “Hostility and physiological responses to acute stress in people with type 2 diabetes”. Psychosomatic Medicine, 77(4), 458.
21. Hall, H. K. (2006). “Perfectionism: A hallmark quality of world class performers, or a psychological impediment to athletic development”. Essential processes for attaining peak performance, 1(7), 178-211.
22. Hamachek, D. E. (1978). “Psychodynamics of normal and neurotic perfectionism”. Psychology: A Journal of Human Behavior.
23. Jowett, G. E., Hill, A. P., Hall, H. K., & Curran, T. (2013). “Perfectionism and junior athlete burnout: The mediating role of autonomous and controlled motivation”. Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology, 2(1), 48.
24. Kim, K.-J., Park, S., Kim, K.-H., Jun, T.-W., Park, D.-H., & Kim, K.-B. (2010). “Salivary cortisol and immunoglobulin A responses during golf competition vs. practice in elite male and female junior golfers”. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 24(3), 852-858.
25. Klaperski, S., von Dawans, B., Heinrichs, M., & Fuchs, R. (2014).” Effects of a 12-week endurance training program on the physiological response to psychosocial stress in men: a randomized controlled trial”. Journal of behavioral medicine, 37(6), 1118-1133.
26. Lupien, S. J., Fiocco, A., Wan, N., Maheu, F., Lord, C., Schramek, T., & Tu, M. T. (2005). “Stress hormones and human memory function across the lifespan”. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 30(3), 225-242.
27. Matsuura, Y., Demura, S., & Tanaka, Y. (2014). “Salivary [Alpha]-amylase Activity and s-IgA Levels Could be Taken as a Measure of Physiological Stress in Wheelchair-dependent Persons with Physical Disabilities and Without Disability Middle-aged Persons”. British Journal of Medicine and Medical Research, 4(30), 4879.
28. McGirr, A., & Turecki, G. (2009). SELF-CRITICAL PERFECTIONISM IS ASSOCIATED WITH INCREASES IN SYMPATHETIC INDICATORS IN A Controlled Laboratory Stress Paradigm. Psychosomatic Medicine, 71, 588–590.
29. Richardson, C., & Rice, K. (2014). Perfectionism, emotion regulation, and the cortisol stress response. Journal of Counseling.
30. Rimm, S. (2007). “What's wrong with perfect? Clinical perspectives on perfectionism and underachievement”. Gifted Education International, 23(3), 246-253.
31. Roberts, G., & Treasure, D. (2012).” Advances in motivation in sport and exercise”: Human Kinetics.
32. Salvador, A., & Costa, R. (2009).” Coping with competition: neuroendocrine responses and cognitive variables”. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 33(2), 160-170.
33. Sauder, C. L., Thompson, A. E., Myers, T., & Ray, C. A. (2012). “Effect of Mental Stress on Coronary Blood Flow in Humans”. The FASEB Journal, 26(1_MeetingAbstracts), 1055.1056.
34. Molnar, D. S., & Sirois, F. M. (2016). Perfectionism, Health, and Well-Being: Epilogue and Future Directions. In Perfectionism, Health, and Well-Being.Springer International Publishing.
35. Stoeber, J. (2011).” The dual nature of perfectionism in sports: Relationships with emotion, motivation, and performance”. International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 4(2), 128-145.
36. Strahler, K., Ehrlenspiel, F., Heene, M., & Brand, R. (2010). “Competitive anxiety and cortisol awakening response in the week leading up to a competition”. Psychology of sport and exercise, 11(2), 148-154.
37. Teixeira, A. M., Teixeira, S., & Ferreira, J. P. (2014). “Mucosal Immunity, Stress, Cognition and Functional Fitness in Sedentary and Active Elderly Men”. Paper presented at the International Journal of Exercise Science: Conference Proceedings.
38. Wirtz, P. H., Elsenbruch, S., Emini, L., Rüdisüli, K., Groessbauer, S., & Ehlert, U. (2007). “Perfectionism and the cortisol response to psychosocial stress in men”. Psychosomatic Medicine, 69(3), 249-255.
39. Zureck, E., Altstötter-Gleich, C., Wolf, O. T., & Brand, M. (2014). “It depends: Perfectionism as a moderator of experimentally induced stress”. Personality and Individual Differences, 63, 30-35.