تأثیر تعدیل تجهیزات ورزشی بر اکتساب و یادداری مهارت حرکتی در کودکان 9 تا 10 ساله با تأکید بر ظرفیت حافظۀ کاری

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری رفتار حرکتی، دانشکده تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد، واحد پردیس بین الملل، مشهد

2 استاد، گروه رفتار حرکتی، دانشکده تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد، مشهد، ایران

3 استادیار ، گروه رفتارحرکتی در تربیت بدنی، دانشکده تربیت بدنی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد،مشهد،ایران

4 استادیار گروه فیزیوتراپی، دانشکده علوم توانبخشی، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی شیراز، شیراز، ایران

چکیده

 
هدف از پژوهش حاضر بررسی تأثیر تعدیل تجهیزات در اکتساب و یادداری مهارت پرتاب آزاد بسکتبال در کودکان 9 تا10 ساله با تأکید بر ظرفیت حافظۀ کاری بود. 40 دانش‌آموز پسر به‌طور تصادفی انتخاب و براساس آزمون حافظۀ فراخنای ارقام وکسلر، به چهار گروه تعدیل تجهیزات و تجهیزات استاندارد، با ظرفیت حافظۀ کاری بالا و پایین تقسیم شدند. از قوانین مینی‌بسکتبال به‌عنوان مرجع استفاده شد. مرحلۀ اکتساب شامل10 جلسه و هر جلسه 4 بلوک و هر بلوک 15 کوشش بود، از آزمون پرتاب آزاد بسکتبال ایفرد به‌عنوان پیش‌آزمون و آزمون اکتساب استفاده شد و پس از یک هفته، آزمون یادداری به‌عمل آمد. در مرحلۀ اکتساب، نتایج تحلیل واریانس سه‌عاملی مرکب 2×2×2 (تجهیزات×حافظۀ کاری×آزمون) با اندازه‌گیری مکرر نشان داد که اثر تعاملی بین حافظۀ کاری (بالا و پایین) و آزمون (پیش‌آزمون و پس‌آزمون) بر عملکرد معنا‌دار است. همچنین اثر تعاملی بین تجهیزات (استاندارد و تعدیل‌شده) و آزمون (پیش‌آزمون و پس‌آزمون) بر عملکرد معنا‌دار است. درحالی‌که اثر تعاملی حافظۀ کاری، تجهیزات و آزمون بر عملکرد معنا‌دار نیست. در مرحلۀ یادداری، نتایج تحلیل واریانس دوعاملی مرکب 2×2 (تجهیزات×حافظۀ کاری) نشان داد که اثر اصلی و تعاملی حافظۀ کاری و تجهیزات بر عملکرد در مرحلۀ یادداری معنا‌دار است. نتایج نشان داد که اثر استفاده از تجهیزات در سطوح حافظۀ کاری بر عملکرد در هر دو مرحلۀ پیش‌آزمون و پس‌آزمون یکسان است. همچنین به‌نظر می‌رسد که اثر تجهیزات تعدیل‌شده بر عملکرد در آزمون یادداری در کودکان با حافظۀ کاری پایین بهتر از کودکان با حافظۀ کاری بالاست.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effect of Equipment Modification on Acquisition and Retention of Motor Skill in 9-10-Year-Old Children with an Emphasis on Working Memory Capacity

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohsen Afrouzeh 1
  • Mehdi Sohrabi 2
  • AliReza Saberi Kakhki 3
  • Sobhan Sobhani 4
1 Department of Motor Behavior, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad-International Campus, Mashhad, Iran
2 Full professor, Department of Motor Behavior, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran
3 Associate professor, Department of Motor Behavior, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran
4 Assistant professor, Department of Physical Therapy, School of Rehabilitation Sciences, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran
چکیده [English]

 
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of equipment modification on acquisition and retention of basketball free throw skill in children aged between 9 and 10 with an emphasis on working memory capacity. 40malestudents were randomly selected and divided into 4 groups of modified and standard equipment with high and low working memory capacity based on the Memory for Digit Span assessment by Wechsler. Mini-basketball rules were used as a reference. The acquisition phase included 10 sessions, 4blocks each session and 15 attempts each block. Free throw basketball test (AAHPERD) was conducted as the pretest and acquisition and retention tests were conducted after a week. In the acquisition phase, 2x2x2 multivariate analysis of variance (eqipement×working memory×test) with repeated measures showed that interactive effect between working memory (high and low) and test (pretest and posttest) on performance was significant. Also, interactive effect between equipment (standard and modified) and test (pretest and posttest) on performance was significant while the interactive effect of working memory, equipment and test on performance was not significant. In retention phase, 2x2 multivariate analysis of variance (eqipement×working memory) showed that the main and interactive effect of working memory and equipment on performance was significant. The results showed that the effect of equipment employment in working memory levels on performance was similar in both pretest and posttest and also it seems that the effect of the modified equipment on performance in retention test was better in children with low working memory than children with high working memory.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • acquisition and retention
  • modification of equipment
  • motor skill
  • working memory capacity
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