اکتساب و تحکیم یادگیری حرکتی رویه‌ای در کودکان دچار اختلال هماهنگی رشدی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 مربی، گروه تربیت بدنی وعلوم ورزشی، دانشگاه پیام نور، تهران، ایران

2 دانشیار، گروه رفتار حرکتی، دانشکدۀ علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه ارومیه، آذربایجان غربی، ایران

3 استادیار، گروه رفتار حرکتی، باشگاه پژوهشگران جوان و نخبگان، واحد ارومیه، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، ارومیه، ایران

چکیده

 
کودکان دچار اختلال هماهنگی رشدی (DCD) گاه در اجرا و یادگیری مهارت‌های حرکتی با مشکل مواجه می‌شوند. هدف تحقیق حاضر، بررسی روند اکتساب و یادگیری حرکتی رویه‌ای در کودکان (DCD) است. از بین دانش‌آموزان پسر 12-8 سالۀ شهر تبریز، 12 کودک دچار اختلال هماهنگی رشدی و 12 کودک عادی همتا از نظر هوشی و سن تقویمی، به‌صورت نمونه‌گیری هدفمند انتخاب شدند. از شکل تعدیل‌یافتۀ تکلیف پیگردی چرخان و متغیرهای زمان باقی ماندن بر هدف، زمان متوالی بر هدف، فاصله از هدف، فاصله از مسیر و فاز نسبی برای ارزیابی یادگیری حرکتی رویه‌ای استفاده شد. شرکت‌کنندگان پس از تمرین در مرحلۀ اکتساب، آزمون یادداری فوری 10 دقیقه و آزمون تحکیم با تأخیر 24 ساعت را انجام دادند. نتایج تحلیل داده‌ها با تحلیل واریانس اندازه‌گیری مکرر نشان داد در مرحلۀ اکتساب بین دو گروه در زمان باقی ماندن بر هدف، فاصله از مسیر و فاز نسبی تفاوت معناداری وجود ندارد، ولی در زمان متوالی بر هدف، فاصله از هدف تفاوت معنادار است. در مرحلۀ یادداری در متغیرهای زمان باقی ماندن بر هدف و زمان متوالی بر هدف و فاصله از هدف تفاوت معنادار بود، ولی در فاصله از مسیر و فاز نسبی تفاوت معناداری وجود نداشت. به‌طور کلی، یافته‌ها بیانگر آن است که با وجود عملکرد کم کودکان DCD در یادگیری حرکتی رویه‌ای، آنان قادر به کسب الگوهای هماهنگی حرکتی بودند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Acquisition and Consolidation of Procedural Motor Learning in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder

نویسندگان [English]

  • hasan sepehri bonab 1
  • Fatemeh Sadat Hosseini 2
  • Malek Ahmadi 3
1 Instructor, Department of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Payame Noor University, Tehran, Iran
2 Associate Professor, Department of Motor Behavior, Faculty of Sport Sciences, University of Urmia, West Azerbaijan, Iran
3 Assistant Professor in Motor Behaviour, Young Researchers and Elite Club, Urmia Branch, Islamic Azad University, Urmia, Iran
چکیده [English]

 
Children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) sometimes have difficulties in performing and learning motor skills. The aim of the present study was to investigate procedural motor acquisition and learning in DCD children. 12 children with developmental coordination disorder and 12 normal children with matched IQ and chronological age were selected from 8-12-year-old male students of Tabriz city by purposive sampling method. A modified version of rotary pursuit task and variables of total time on target (TOT), consecutive time on target (CTT), distance from the target (DT), distance from the path (DP) and relative phase were used to assess procedural motor learning. After training in the acquisition phase, subjects participated in the immediate 10-minute retention test and the consolidation test after 24 hours of rest. Analysis of data by analysis of variance with repeated measures showed no significant differences between the two groups in TOT, DP, and relative phase in the acquisition phase, but there were significant differences in CTT and DT. There were significant differences in TOT, CTT, and DT in the retention phase, but there was no significant differences in DP and relative phase. Generally, the results suggested that despite the low performance of their procedural motor learning, DCD children were able to acquire motor coordination patterns.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Developmental Coordination Disorder
  • distance from path
  • distance from target
  • procedural motor learning
  • relative phase
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