آثار تغییرپذیری تمـرین و توجه در یادگیری مهارتی ورزشی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار، دانشکدۀ علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه اصفهان، اصفهان، ایران

2 کارشناسی ارشد، دانشکدۀ علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه اصفهان، اصفهان، ایران

چکیده

 
در این پژوهش آثار برنامه‌ریزی آرایـش‌ تمرین و کانون توجه بر یادگیری مهارتی ورزشی بررسی شد. 40 دانش‌آموز دختر دبیرستانی (میانگین سن=  88/0 ± 02/16 سال) در حالی مهارت پرتاب دارت را با آرایش مسدود یا تصادفی تمرین کردند که توجه آنان با استفاده از تکالیف دوگانه، به مهارت (امتیازهای دارت) یا به علامت نامربوط (اصوات ثانویه) هدایت شد. تحلیل واریانس روی وضعیت پایه، مرحلۀ تمرین و آزمون انتقال تأخیری انجام گرفت. نتایج نشان داد همۀ گروه‌ها از وضعیت پایه تا آزمون انتقال تأخیری پیشرفت امتیازی معنادار داشتند. به‌علاوه‌، بیشترین پیشرفت از وضعیت پایه تا آزمون تأخیری در مقایسه با دیگر وضعیت‌ها، در شرایط تمرین تصادفی- توجه به عامل نامربوط دیده شد. به‌عنوان نتیجه‌گیری باید گفت پژوهش حاضر اطلاعات تازه‌ای در خصوص رابطۀ تعاملی آرایش تمرین و تمرکز توجه در طی یادگیری یک مهارت ورزشی فراهم کرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effects of Practice Variability and Attention on Sport Skill Learning

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hamid Salehi 1
  • Zahra Zamanpour Boroujeni 2
1 Associate Professor, Faculty of Sport Sciences, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran
2 M.Sc., Faculty of Sport Sciences, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran
چکیده [English]

 
This study examined the effects of practice scheduling and attentional focus on learning a sport skill. 40 female high school students (mean age = 16.02 ± 0.88 years) practiced dart-throwing skill under either blocked or random practice schedules while their attention was directed to either the skill (dart scores) or an irrelevant cue (auditory tones) using dual-tasks. Analysis of variance were conducted at baseline, practice phase and a delayed transfer test. Results demonstrated a significant score improvement from baseline to delayed transfer test for all groups. Furthermore, the greatest improvement from baseline to delayed transfer test was observed in random-irrelevant condition compared with the other conditions. In conclusion, the current study provided new information about the interactive relationship between practice scheduling and attentional focus during learning a sport skill.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Contextual interference
  • dart throwing
  • dual-tasks
  • focus of attention
  • practice scheduling
1.   Beauchet, O., Dubost, V., Aminian, K., Gonthier, R., & Kressig, R. W. (2005). "Dual-task-related gait changes in the elderly: Does the type of cognitive task matter?". Journal of motor behavior, 37(4), pp. 259.

2.   Beilock, S. L., Bertenthal, B. I., McCoy, A. M., & Carr, T. H. (2004). "Haste does not always make waste: Expertise, direction of attention, and speed versus accuracy in performing sensorimotor skills". Psychonomic bulletin & review, 11(2), pp. 373-379.

3.   Beilock, S. L., Carr, T. H., MacMahon, C., & Starkes, J. L. (2002). "When paying attention becomes counterproductive: Impact of divided versus skill-focused attention on novice and experienced performance of sensorimotor skills". Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 8(1), pp. 6-16.

4.   Brady, F. (2008). "The contextual interference effect and sport skills". Perceptual and motor skills, 106(2), pp. 461-472.

5.   Bright, J., & Freedman, O. (1998). "Differences between implicit and explicit acquisition of a complex motor skill under pressure: An examination of some evidence". British Journal of Psychology, 89(2), pp. 249-263.

6.   Castaneda, B., & Gray, R. (2007). "Effects of focus of attention on baseball batting performance in players of differing skill levels". Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 29(1), pp. 60-77.

7.   Fitts, P. M., & Posner, M. I. (1967). "Human performance": Oxford, England: Brooks/Cole.

8.   Goode, S., & Magill, R. A. (1986). "Contextual interference effects in learning three badminton serves". Research Quarterly for Exercise ‎and Sport, 57, pp. 308-314.

9.   Grubaugh, J., & Rhea, C. K. (2014). "Gait performance is not influenced by working memory when walking at a self-selected pace". Experimental Brain Research, 232(2), pp. 515-525.

10. Lee, T. D., & Magill, R. A. (1983). "The locus of contextual interference in motor-skill acquisition". Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 9(4), pp. 730.

11. Lee, T. D., & Magill, R. A. (1985). "Can forgetting facilitate skill acquisition?". Advances in Psychology, 27, pp. 3-22.

12. Li, Y., & Wright, D. L. (2000). "An assessment of the attention demands during random-and blocked-practice schedules". The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: Section A, 53(2), pp. 591-606.

13. Magill, R. A., & Hall, K. G. (1990). "A review of the contextual interference effect in motor skill acquisition". Hum Mov Sci, 9(3), pp. 241-289.

14. Meira Jr, C. M., & Tani, G. (2001). "The contextual interference effect in acquisition of dart-throwing skill tested on a transfer test with extended trials". Perceptual and motor skills, 92(3), pp. 910-918.

15. Raisbeck, L. D., Regal, A., Diekfuss, J. A., Rhea, C. K., & Ward, P. (2015). "Influence of practice schedules and attention on skill development and retention". Hum Mov Sci, 43, pp. 100-106.

16. Renshaw, I., Chow, J. Y., Davids, K., & Hammond, J. (2010). "A constraints-led perspective to understanding skill acquisition and game play: A basis for integration of motor learning theory and physical education praxis?". Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, 15(2), pp. 117-137.

17. Renshaw, I., Davids, K., & Savelsbergh, G. J. (2010). "Motor learning in practice: A constraints-led approach": Routledge.

18. Salehi, H. (2011). "Contextual interference effects on style and outcomes of basketball shooting". Motor Behavior Journal (Research on Sport Science), 2(7), pp. 45-62 (In Persian).

19. Salehi, H., Khajeh, F., & Namazizade, M. (2010). "Regular increasing contextual interference effect in learning of basketball passing". Motor Behavior Journal (Research on Sport Science), 2(5), pp. 107-126 (In Persian).

20. Shea, J. B., & Morgan, R. L. (1979). "Contextual interference effects on the acquisition, retention, and transfer of a motor skill". Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory, 5(2), pp. 179-187.

21. Wulf, G., Höß, M., & Prinz, W. (1998). "Instructions for motor learning: Differential effects of internal versus external focus of attention". Journal of motor behavior, 30(2), pp. 169-179.