اثر هشت هفته تمرینات ادراکی - حرکتی بر حافظۀ کاری کودکان ناشنوا

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری یادگیری حرکتی، دانشکدۀ تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه رازی، کرمانشاه، ایران

2 استادیار، دانشکدۀ تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه رازی، کرمانشاه، ایران

3 دکتری رشد و تکامل و یادگیری حرکتی، پردیس البرز، دانشکدۀ تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

4 کارشناس‌ارشد رفتار حرکتی، دانشکدۀ تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه رازی، کرمانشاه، ایران

چکیده

 
هدف از پژوهش حاضر بررسی تأثیر تمرینات ادراکی- حرکتی بر حافظۀ کاری در کودکان با اختلالات شنوایی بود. بدین منظور 24 دانش‌‌آموز ناشنوای 9 تا 12 سالۀ کرمانشاه انتخاب شده و به‌طور تصادفی به دو گروه تجربی و کنترل تقسیم شدند. ابزار مورد استفاده شامل آزمون حافظۀ کاری با استفاده از نرم‌افزار حافظۀ وکسلر بود. گروه تجربی، یک برنامۀ آموزشی ادراکی- حرکتی (مانند تمرینات تعادل ایستا و پویا، پرتاب و دریافت توپ و ...) را به مدت هشت هفته، هر هفته 3 جلسه و هر جلسه 60 دقیقه انجام دادند و در نهایت پس‌آزمون از هر دو گروه به‌عمل آمد. با در نظر گرفتن سطح معناداری 01/0 و توزیع طبیعی داده­ها، از آزمون واریانس مختلط استفاده شد. نتایج نشان داد که حافظۀ کاری تحت تأثیر تمرینات ادراکی حرکتی قرار می­گیرد (05/0P<). کودکان ناشنوا در گروه تجربی نسبت به گروه کنترل از نظر شمارش رو به جلو ارقام و فراخنای حافظۀ دیداری عملکرد معنادار بهتری نشان دادند (05/0P<)، اما در تکرار معکوس ارقام تفاوت معناداری بین دو گروه دیده نشد (05/0P>). براساس یافته‌های حاضر تمرینات ادراکی – حرکتی می­تواند سبب بهبود حافظۀ کاری در کودکان ناشنوا شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effect of 8 Weeks of Perceptual-Motor Training on Working Memory in Children with Hearing Loss

نویسندگان [English]

  • Zahra Soori 1
  • Ali Heirani 2
  • frozan rafie 3
  • zahra falahi 4
1 PhD Student in Motor Learning, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran
2 Assistant Professor, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran
3 PhD in Movement Growth and Development and Learning, Alborz Campus, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
4 M.Sc. in Motor Behavior, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran
چکیده [English]

 
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of perceptual-motor training on working memory in children with hearing disorders. For this purpose, 24 student with hearing loss (9-12 years old) in Kermanshah were selected and randomly divided to experimental and control groups. A working memory test by Wechsler memory software was used in this study. The experimental group performed a perceptual-motor training program (static and dynamic balance exercises, throw and receive the ball …) for 8 weeks, 3 sessions per week, 60 minutes each session. Finally, both groups conducted the posttest. Based on α=0.01 and normal distribution of data, mixed ANOVA test was used. The results showed that working memory was influenced by perceptual-motor training (P<0.05). Children in the experimental group showed a better significant performance in terms of counting on forward and visual memory span than control group (P<0.05), but there was no significant difference in the countdown between the two groups (P˃0.05). The present findings suggest that perceptual-motor training can improve working memory in children with hearing loss.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • children with hearing loss
  • perceptual-motor training
  • working memory
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