تأثیر هدف‌گزینی آسان و دشوار بر اکتساب و یادداری مهارت پرتاب آزاد بسکتبال در دانش ‌آموزان کم‌توان ذهنی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناس‌ارشد رفتار حرکتی، دانشکدۀ تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه اصفهان، اصفهان، ایران

2 استاد گروه رفتار حرکتی، دانشکدۀ تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه اصفهان، اصفهان، ایران

3 استادیار گروه رفتار حرکتی، دانشکدۀ تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه اصفهان، اصفهان، ایران

چکیده

 
هدف‌گزینی از جمله مؤلفه‌های انگیزشی است که برای بهبود یادگیری مهارت‌های ورزشی به‌کار می‌رود. هدف از تحقیق حاضر، تعیین تأثیر هدف‌گزینی آسان و دشوار بر اکتساب و یادگیری پرتاب آزاد بسکتبال در دانش‌آموزان کم‌توان ذهنی آموزش‌پذیر بود. نمونۀ این پژوهش 21 نفر از دانش‌آموزان کم‌توان ذهنی آموزش‌پذیر 13 – 8 سال شهر اصفهان بودند که در دو گروه هدف‌گزینی آسان و دشوار قرار گرفتند. شرکت‌کنندگان 9 جلسه به اکتساب تکلیف ملاک پرداختند. آزمون پرتاب آزاد بسکتبال به‌عنوان ابزار پژوهش استفاده شد. پیش‌آزمون قبل از جلسات اکتساب و آزمون‌های اکتساب در طول جلسات اکتساب و آزمون‌های یادداری فوری و تأخیری به‌ترتیب پس از 2 و 10 روز بی‌تمرینی برگزار شد. برای تحلیل داده‌ها از تحلیل واریانس و اندازه‌های تکراری و آزمون t مستقل استفاده شد. نتایج نشان داد گروه هدف‌گزینی آسان در مراحل اکتساب و یادداری، بهبود معنا‌دار اجرا داشتند (P< 0.05)، درحالی‌که گروه هدف‌گزینی دشوار بهبودی اجرا نشان ندادند. یافته‌ها، استفاده از هدف‌گزینی آسان به‌جای هدف‌گزینی دشوار را برای آموزش پرتاب آزاد بسکتبال به کودکان کم‌توان ذهنی پیشنهاد می‌کند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effect of Easy and Difficult Goal Setting on Acquisition and Retention of Basketball Free Throws in Children with Mental Retardation

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohadeseh Mohammadi 1
  • Ahmadreza Movahedi 2
  • Hamid Salehi 3
  • Shila Safavi Homami 3
1 MSc of Motor Behavior, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran
2 Professor, Department of Motor Behavior, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran
3 Assistant Professor, Department of Motor Behavior, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran
چکیده [English]

Goal setting is a motivational item  that is usually used for enhancing sport skills learning. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of easy versus difficult goals on acquisition and retention of basketball free throws in educable children with mental retardation (AWMR). A total of twenty one AWMR educable students (aged between 8 and 13) were assigned to either a difficult or easy goals group. Participants exercised the task for nine sessions across acquisition phase. Both groups performed a pretest before the acquisition sessions. Acquisition tests were taken during acquisition phase, and immediate and delayed retention tests were also taken after 2 and 10 days of no practice respectively. We performed statistical analyses with a repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA), and an independent t test. Results showed that easy goal setting group significantly improved their performance in acquisition and retention phases (P<0.05) while difficult goal setting group showed no improvement in their performance. These findings suggest that setting easy goals instead of difficult goals improves the performance of basketball free throws in children with mental retardation

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Acquisition
  • basketball free throw
  • difficult goal setting
  • easy goal setting
  • mental retardation
  • retention

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