عنوان مقاله [English]
The main aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different levels of impulsivity on learning of skills in open and closed environments. Participations were forty-eight male with 10 to 12 years old that signed in low impulsivity, med impulsivity, high impulsivity and control groups (combined group) in accordance to the distribution of impulsivity scores. Before and after basketball skills training program, Harrison’s basketball shooting test was used to evaluation of performance and learning of skills in open and closed environments during pre-test, post-test, retention and transfer test. The results showed a significantly differences between groups for attentional functions (p=0.0001). The results of post-test and retention showed advanced performance in open environment with the increased levels of impulsivity (p=0.003). While about closed environment, progressive performance was aligned with Low levels of impulsivity groups (F=0.001). But in the transfer tests, differences between the groups were not significant (F=0.09), that was performed under the competitive goal condition. It is possible that impulsivity has a facilitator and an attenuator role in learning of various sportive skills, perhaps in open and closed environments.
1. Anderson, D. (2010). "Inhibition in visual selective attention: Evidence from normal development and autism". [MA Thesis]. Toronto, Canada: ProQuest Dissertations, p. 256-269.
2. Angela Button. (2011) "Aims, principles and methodologies in talent identification and development". Elsevier Ltd. p. 347-359.
3. Arce, E., & Santisteban, C. (2006). "Impulsivity: A review". Psicothema, 18, p. 213-220.
4. Bahrami, A. ghotbi Varzaneh, A. Saemi, I. (2013). "Accuracy Evaluation in open and closed environments; cognitive styles approach". Motor behavior. Fall 1392, 13: 94-77. [Persian]
5. Basharat M. A, GHahramani M. H, Ahmadi, N. (2011). "Impulsivity traits in contact and non-sport". Research in Sport Management and motor behavior. Summer. (3); 5: 24-13. [Persian]
6. Basharat, Ali, ghahramani. M. H, Naghipour, B. (2013). "The predictor role of self-regulation and impulsivity in sports success: Compare contact and non-contact sports". Motor behavior. Winter; (6)18: 147-131. [Persian]
7. Besharat, M, A. (2007). "Evaluate the psychometric properties Barratt Impulsivity Scale". Research report, Tehran University, 98-60. [Persian]
8. Collins, D.R. Hodges, P.B. (2001). "A comprehensive Guide to sports skills tests and measurement" (2nd ed.). Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press, p. 69-71.
9. Farrow, D., Pyne, D., & Gabbett, T. (2008). "Skill and Physiological Demands of Open and Closed Training Drills in Australian Football". International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, 3(4), p. 489-501.
10. Fleury, M., Bard, C., Gagnin, M., & Teasdale N. (1992). "Coincidence anticipation timing: The perceptual motor interface". (Editors).Proteau L., & Elliott D. Vision and motor control. Elsevier Science Publishers, p. 61-80.
11. G.M. Lage et al. (2012). "A kinematic analysis of the association between impulsivity and manual aiming control". Human Movement Science 31, p. 811–823.
12. Gahramani, M, H. Besharat, M, A. Sohrabi, M. (2015). "Impulsivity features in soccer player’s whit different posts; testing of mastery orientation approach". Journal of development and Learning - motor – Sport. Winter 6, No. 6, pp: 141-160. [Persian]
13. Gary, J. A. (1982). "Pavlov". Translated by M. Behzad, (1st Ed.), Tehran, Kharazmi Publications, p. 231-248.
14. Ghadiri F, Jazayeri A, Ashayeri H, Ghazi Tabatabaei M. (2006). "The role of rehabilitation of cognitive in reduce deficits of executive function and symptoms of obsessive: Compulsive in Schizo-obsessive patients". J Rehabil; 7(4): p. 15-24.
15. Ghose, G. M., & Bearl, D. W. (2010). "Attention directed by expectations enhances receptive fields in cortical area MT". Vision Research, (Article in Press), 2010, p. 13-29.
16. Gray, J. A. (1987). "Perspectives on anxiety and impulsivity". Commentary Journal of Research in Personality, 27, p. 493-509.
17. Gray, J. A. (1981). "Gray’s reinforcement sensitivity model and child psychopathology". In H. J. Eysenck (Ed.), A model for personality.Berlin: Springer-Verlag, p. 89-101.
18. Gray, J. A. (1972). "The psycho physiological basis of introversion extraversion: A modification of Eysenck's theory". In V. D. Nebylitsyn, & J. A. Gray (Eds.), "the biological basis of individual behavior". New York: Academic, p. 341-362.
19. Keye, M., Roth, N., Westhus, W., & Heine, A. (2004). "Continuous Performance Task (CPT)-Manual" .Gottigen: Hogrefeverlag fur psychology; p. 40-65.
20. Landau A. N. D. Elwan. W. Prinzmetal. (2012). "Voluntary and involuntary attention vary as a function of impulsivity". Psychon Bull Rev, 19:p. 405–411.
21. Macaluso, E. (2009). "Orienting the spatial attention and the interplay between the senses". Cortex (Article in press). p. 05-10.
22. Magill, R, A. (2011). "Motor learning and control: concepts and application". 9thed, New York, McGraw-Hill, p. 86-100.
23. Miller, J. (1987). "Priming is not necessary for selective-attention failures: Semantic effects of unattended, unprimed letters". Perception & Psychophysics, 41(5), p. 419-434.
24. Millslagle D.G. (2008). "Effect of increasing and decreasing intra trial stimulus speed on coincidence-anticipation timing". Perceptual and Motor Skills, Vol. 107(2); P. 373-386.
25. Mishra and Gazzaley. (2012). "Attention Distributed across Sensory Modalities Enhances Perceptual Performance". J. Neurosci., August 29, 32(35):p. 12294 –12302.
26. Moeller, F. G., Barratt, E. S., Dougherty, D. M., Schmitz, J. M., & Swann, A. C. (2001). "Psychiatric aspects of impulsivity. American Journal of Psychiatry". 158, p. 1783-1793.
27. Patton, J. H., Stanford, M. S., & Barrett, E. S. (1995). "Factor structure of the Barrette Impulsiveness Scale". Journal of Clinical Psychology, 51, p. 768- 774.
28. S.M. Bresnahan et al. (1999). "Age-Related EEG Changes in ADHD". biol psychiatry. 46:p. 1690–1697.
29. Schmidt, R, A. Lee, T, D. (2011). "Motor control and learning: a behavioral emphasis. 5thed". New York, Human kinetics, p. 28-41.
30. Smillie, L., & Jackson, C. J. (2006). "Functional impulsivity and reinforcement sensitivity theory". Journal of Personality, p. 74, 47–83. 18.
31. Sohrabi, M. Gahramani, M, H. Besharat, M, A. (2015). "Investigation of impulsivity features in soccer goalkeeper’s whit different skill levels". Journal of Sport psychology. Spring 2015. No. 11, pp: 41-52. [Persian]
32. Thomas, A., Eidson, R., & Stadulis, E. (1991). "Effects of Variability of Practice on the Transfer and Performance of Open and Closed Motor Skills". Adapted Physical activity quarterly, 8, p. 342-356.
33. Vander Stigchel, S., Belopolsky, A. V., Peters, J. C., Wijnen, J. G. Meeter, M., & Theeuwes, J. (2010). "The limits of top-down control of visual attention". Acta Psychologica (Article in press), p. 07.
34. Verbruggen F, Logan GD. (2008). "Response inhibition in the stopsignal paradigm". Trend Cogn Sci; 12(11): p. 418-24.
35. Wenhao, liu. (2003). "Field dependence-independence and sport with preponderance of closed or open skill". School of education the colleges, p. 285-295.