تأثیر سطوح مختلف تکانش‌گری بر یادگیری مهارت های ورزشی در محیط های باز و بسته

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دکتری رفتار حرکتی، دانشکدة تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد، ایران

2 استاد گروه رفتار حرکتی دانشکدةه تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد، ایران

3 دانشیار گروه رفتارحرکتی دانشکدة تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد، ایران

4 استاد گروه روا نشناسی بالینی،دانشکدة روا نشناسی و علوم تربیتی، دانشگاه تهران، ایران

چکیده

کارکردهای توجهی نقش مهمی در تعامل فرد با محیط دارد. این کارکردها در برخی شرایط محیطی تحت تأثیر ویژگی‌های تکانش‌گری قرار می‌گیرند و از این طریق می‌تواند عامل تعیین‌کننده‌ای در عملکرد و یادگیری افراد باشد. هدف اصلی تحقیق حاضر بررسی تأثیر سطوح مختلف تکانش‌گری بر یادگیری مهارت‌های ورزشی در محیط‌های باز و بسته بود. شرکت‌کنندگان 48 پسر 10 تا 12 ساله در چهار گروه تکانش‌گری پایین، تکانش‌گری متوسط، تکانش‌گری بالا و گروه کنترل بودند. پیش و پس از هشت هفته برنامۀ تمرینی مهارت‌های پایۀ بسکتبال، آزمون شوت بسکتبال هریسون برای ارزیابی عملکرد و یادگیری در محیط‌های باز و بسته طی مراحل پیش‌آزمون، پس‌آزمون، یادداری و انتقال به‌عمل آمد. نتایج تحقیق تفاوت‌های معنا‌داری را بین گروه‌های تحقیق در کارکردهای توجهی نشان داد (0001/0=P). نتایج مراحل پس‌آزمون و یادداری در مورد محیط باز نشان داد که همراستا با افزایش سطوح تکانش‌گری افراد، برتری چشمگیری در فرایندهای یادگیری در این محیط مشاهده می‌شود (003/0=P). درحالی‌که در مورد محیط بسته، عملکرد بهتر همراستا با کاهش سطوح تکانش‌گری مشاهده شد (001/0=P). تفاوت‌های مشاهده‌شده بین گروه‌ها در مرحلۀ انتقال - که به‌صورت رقابتی برگزار شد- از نظر آماری معنا‌دار نبود (09/0=P). این احتمال وجود دارد که سطوح مختلف تکانش‌گری نقشی تسهیل‌کننده و تضعیف‌کننده در یادگیری مهارت‌های ورزشی با توجه به محیط‌های اجرا مانند محیط‌های باز و بسته دارد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The effect of different levels of impulsivity on learning of sport skills in open and closed environments

نویسندگان [English]

  • mohamad hosein ghahramani 1
  • mehdi sohrabi 2
  • Alireza Saberi Kakhki 3
  • Mohamad Ali Besharat 4
1 PhD in Motor Behavior, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences,Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran
2 Professor, Department of Motor Behavior, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran
3 Associate Professor, Department of Motor Behavior, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences,Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran
4 Professor, Department of Clinical Psychology, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

The main aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different levels of impulsivity on learning of skills in open and closed environments. Participations were forty-eight male with 10 to 12 years old that signed in low impulsivity, med impulsivity, high impulsivity and control groups (combined group) in accordance to the distribution of impulsivity scores. Before and after basketball skills training program, Harrison’s basketball shooting test was used to evaluation of performance and learning of skills in open and closed environments during pre-test, post-test, retention and transfer test. The results showed a significantly differences between groups for attentional functions (p=0.0001). The results of post-test and retention showed advanced performance in open environment with the increased levels of impulsivity (p=0.003). While about closed environment, progressive performance was aligned with Low levels of impulsivity groups (F=0.001). But in the transfer tests, differences between the groups were not significant (F=0.09), that was performed under the competitive goal condition. It is possible that impulsivity has a facilitator and an attenuator role in learning of various sportive skills, perhaps in open and closed environments.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Complex skills
  • motor impulsivity
  • Simple skills
  • Sport skill
  • Talent
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