عنوان مقاله [English]
Aim: This study aimed to determine effect of self-control of task difficulty on accurate and movement pattern golf putting.
Methodology: Thirty novice undergraduate students (14 Female and 16 male; average age 21.1 ± 1.64 years) were quasi-randomly assigned to two groups. Before performing each trial during the acquisition phase, the self-control group was told they could choose any of the pre-set distances from the target: (25, 50, 75, 100, 125, 150, 175 and, 200 cm). Each self-control participant’s practice schedule was served as the predetermined practice schedule for each corresponding yoked participant. Participants practiced eight blocks of 10 trials. To analyze the radial error (in acquisition and tests phases) and the movement pattern score (in tests) mixed variance analysis with repeated measures on the last factor was used. The movement pattern score in acquisition phase was analyzed using t test.
Results: Based on the results, radial errors across different groups in the acquisition phase did not vary, but the radial error of the self-control group in retention, single task transfer and dual-task transfer tests was lower compared to the yoked group (ps < 0.001). In acquisition and test phases, the golf putting movement pattern was better than that of yoked group (ps < 0.001).
Conclusion: The efficacy of self-control of task difficulty is explained with reference to the challenge point framework.
1. Wulf G, Shea C, Lewthwaite R. Motor skill learning and performance: A review of influential factors. Medical Education. 2010;44(1):75-84.
2. Wulf G, Chiviacowsky S, Drews R. External focus and autonomy support: Two important factors in motor learning have additive benefits. Human Movement Science. 2015;40:176-84.
3. Chen D, Singer RN. Self-regulation and cognitive strategies in sport participation. International Journal of Sport Psychology. 1992.
4. McCombs BL. Self-regulated learning and academic achievement: A phenomenological view. Self-regulated Learning and Academic Achievement: Springer; 1989. p. 51-82.
5. Watkins D. Student perceptions of factors influencing tertiary learning. Higher Education Research and Development. 1984;3(1):33-50.
6. Bandura A. Perceived self-efficacy in cognitive development and functioning. Educational Psychologist. 1993;28(2):117-48.
7. Boekaerts M. Self-regulated learning at the junction of cognition and motivation. European Psychologist. 1996;1(2):100-12.
8. Kirschenbaum DS. Self-regulation and sport psychology: Nurturing an emerging symbiosis. Journal of Sport Psychology. 1984;6(2):159-83.
9. Ferrari M. Observing the observer: Self-regulation in the observational learning of motor skills. Developmental Review. 1996;6(2): 140-203.
10. Post PG, Fairbrother JT, Barros JA. Self-controlled amount of practice benefits learning of a motor skill. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport. 2011;82(3):474-81.
11. Patterson JT, Carter M, Sanli E. Decreasing the proportion of self-control trials during the acquisition period does not compromise the learning advantages in a self-controlled context. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport. 2011;82(4):624-33.
12. Hemayattalab R. Effects of self-control and instructor-control feedback on motor learning in individuals with cerebral palsy. Research in Developmental Disabilities. 2014;35(11):2766-72.
13. Andrieux M, Danna J, Thon B. Self-control of task difficulty during training enhances motor learning of a complex coincidence-anticipation task. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport. 2012;83(1):27-35.
14. Andrieux M, Boutin A, Thon B. Self-control of task difficulty during early practice promotes motor skill learning. Journal of Motor Behavior. 2016;48(1):57-65.
15. Guadagnoli MA, Lee TD. Challenge point: A framework for conceptualizing the effects of various practice conditions in motor learning. Journal of Motor Behavior. 2004;36(2):212-24.
16. Akizuki K, Ohashi Y. Measurement of functional task difficulty during motor learning: What level of difficulty corresponds to the optimal challenge point? Human Movement Science. 2015;43:107-17.
17. Keetch KM, Lee TD. The effect of self-regulated and experimenter-imposed practice schedules on motor learning for tasks of varying difficulty. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport. 2007;78(5):476-86.
18. Janelle CM, Kim J, Singer RN. Subject-Controlled Performance Feedback and Learning of a Closed Motor Skill 1. Perceptual and Motor Skills. 1995;81(2):627-34.
19. Wulf G, Toole T. Physical assistance devices in complex motor skill learning: Benefits of a self-controlled practice schedule. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport. 1999;70(3):265-72.
20. Wulf G, Clauss A, Shea CH, Whitacre CA. Benefits of self-control in dyad practice. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport. 2001;72(3):299-303.
21. Hartman JM. Self-controlled use of a perceived physical assistance device during a balancing task. Perceptual and Motor Skills. 2007;104(3):1005-16.
22. Magill R, Anderson D. Motor control and learning: Concepts and applications. 10th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2014.
23. Poolton J, Masters R, Maxwell J. The relationship between initial errorless learning conditions and subsequent performance. Human Movement Science. 2005;24(3):362-78.
24. Maxwell J, Masters R, Kerr E, Weedon E. The implicit benefit of learning without errors. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: Section A. 2001;54(4):1049-68.
25. Porter JM, Landin D, Hebert EP, Baum B. The effects of three levels of contextual interference on performance outcomes and movement patterns in golf skills. International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching. 2007;2(3):243-55.
26. Payne VG, Isaacs LD. Human motor development: A life span approach. 8 edition ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2012.
27. Chiviacowsky S, Wulf G. Feedback after good trials enhances learning. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport. 2007;78(2):40-7.
28. Nezakat Alhosseini M, Abbas B, Shafizadeh M, Farrokhi A, Wulf G. The effect of self-control feedback on the relative and absolute timing learning (In Persian). Movement Siences and Sport. 2009;13:43-56.
29. Chiviacowsky S, Wulf G. Self-controlled feedback: Does it enhance learning because performers get feedback when they need it? Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport. 2002;73(4):408-15.
30. Grand KF, Bruzi AT, Dyke FB, Godwin MM, Leiker AM, Thompson AG, et al. Why self-controlled feedback enhances motor learning: Answers from electroencephalography and indices of motivation. Human Movement Science. 2015;43:23-32.