تأثیر خودکنترلی دشواری تکلیف بر یادگیری پات گلف: اثر تسهیل کننده تمرین خودکنترل بر تنظیم نقطه چالش

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری رفتار حرکتی، گروه رفتار حرکتی، دانشکده تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه خوارزمی، تهران، ایران

2 گروه رفتار حرکتی، دانشکده تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه خوارزمی، تهران، ایران

3 دانشیار، گروه ر فتارحرکتی، دانشکده تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه الزهرا (س)، تهران، ایران

4 استادیار، گروه رفتار حرکتی، دانشکده تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه خوارزمی، تهران، ایران

چکیده

هدف تحقیق، تعیین اثر خودکنترلی دشواری تکلیف بر دقت و الگوی حرکتی مهارت ورزشی پات گلف بود. بدین منظور، 30 دانشجوی مبتدی (14 دختر و 16 پسر؛ میانگین سنی 64/1‌±‌1/21 سال) بصورت شبه تصادفی در دو گروه قرار گرفتند. در مرحله اکتساب به شرکت کنندگان گروه خودکنترل گفته شد قبل از هر کوشش می توانند هر یک از فواصل از قبل مشخص شده تا هدف (25، 50، 75، 100، 125، 150، 175 و 200 سانتی متری) را انتخاب و تمرین کنند. برنامه تمرین هر آزمودنی گروه خودکنترل مبنایی شد برای برنامه ریزی تمرین فواصل از پیش تعیین شده یکی از آزمودنی‌های متناظر در گروه جفت شده. یادگیرندگان در مرحله اکتساب هشت بلوک 10 کوششی تمرین کردند. در روز دوم، آزمون‌های یادداری، انتقال تکلیف دوگانه و انتقال تکلیف منفرد اجرا شد. خطای شعاعی (مرحله اکتساب و آزمون‌ها) و امتیاز الگوی حرکتی پات گلف (آزمون‌ها) با استفاده از روش تحلیل واریانس مرکب با اندازه گیری مکرر و امتیاز الگوی حرکتی پات گلف در مرحله اکتساب با استفاده از آزمون t تحلیل شد. بر اساس نتایج، خطای شعاعی گروه خودکنترل در مرحله اکتساب نسبت به گروه جفت شده تفاوت نداشت (709/0=p)، اما در آزمون های یادداری، انتقال تکلیف دوگانه و انتقال تکلیف منفرد کمتر بود (001/0‌>‌p در همه موارد). همچنین، الگوی حرکتی گروه خودکنترل در مرحله اکتساب و آزمون‌های مختلف نسبت به گروه جفت شده برتری داشت (001/0‌>‌p در همه موارد). مزایای خودکنترلی دشواری تکلیف با استفاده از چارچوب نقطه چالش توجیه شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effect of Self-control of Task Difficulty on Learning Golf Putt: The Facilitating Effect of Self-controlled Practice on Adjusting the Challenge Point

نویسندگان [English]

  • mojtaba jalalvand 1
  • Abbas Bahram 2
  • afkham daneshfar 3
  • Saeed Arsham 4
1 M., Ph.D. Student, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Science, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran
2 Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Science, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran
3 Associate Professor, Department of Motor Behavior, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Alzahra University, Tehran, Iran
4 Assistant Professor, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Science, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Aim: This study aimed to determine effect of self-control of task difficulty on accurate and movement pattern golf putting.
Methodology: Thirty novice undergraduate students (14 Female and 16 male; average age 21.1 ± 1.64 years) were quasi-randomly assigned to two groups. Before performing each trial during the acquisition phase, the self-control group was told they could choose any of the pre-set distances from the target: (25, 50, 75, 100, 125, 150, 175 and, 200 cm). Each self-control participant’s practice schedule was served as the predetermined practice schedule for each corresponding yoked participant. Participants practiced eight blocks of 10 trials. To analyze the radial error (in acquisition and tests phases) and the movement pattern score (in tests) mixed variance analysis with repeated measures on the last factor was used. The movement pattern score in acquisition phase was analyzed using t test.
Results: Based on the results, radial errors across different groups in the acquisition phase did not vary, but the radial error of the self-control group in retention, single task transfer and dual-task transfer tests was lower compared to the yoked group (ps < 0.001). In acquisition and test phases, the golf putting movement pattern was better than that of yoked group (ps < 0.001).
Conclusion: The efficacy of self-control of task difficulty is explained with reference to the challenge point framework.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Challenge point
  • motor learning
  • Performance
  • Self-Regulation
  • task difficulty

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