اثر نوع کانون توجه به صورت خودگفتاری بر تعادل ایستا و پویای زنان سالمند

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار دانشکدۀ تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی دانشگاه صنعتی شاهرود-ایران

2 . استادیار تربیت ‌بدنی و علوم ورزشی، گروه مدیریت ورزشی، دانشگاه مازندران، بابلسر، ایران

چکیده

زمین افتادن و سقوط یکی از شایع‌ترین و جدی‌ترین مشکلات دوران سالمندی محسوب می‌شود. هدف از این پژوهش، بررسی اثر نوع کانون توجه با استفاده از راهبرد خودگفتاری آموزشی بر تعادل ایستا و پویای زنان سالمند بود. به همین منظور، از میان زنان سالمند 60 تا 80 سال ساکن در سرای سالمندان شهرستان قزوین، 45 نفر که معیارهای ورود به مطالعه را داشتند انتخاب شدند و بعد از پیش‌آزمون، بصورت تصادفی به سه گروه خودگفتاری آموزشی با توجه درونی، خودگفتاری آموزشی با توجه بیرونی و گروه کنترل تقسیم شدند. گروه کنترل بدون خودگفتاری، گروه خودگفتاری با کانون توجه درونی و گروه خودگفتاری با کانون توجه بیرونی، طی پنج جلسه به تمرین مهارت‌های تعادلی پرداختند و در پایان جلسۀ پنجم از هر سه گروه، با استفاده از آزمون‌های تعادل ایستا (لک لک) و تعادل پویا (برخاستن و راه رفتن زماندار)، پس‌آزمون بعمل آمد. نتایج حاصل از تحلیل واریانس مختلط نشان داد که هر دو گروه خودگفتاری نسبت به گروه کنترل در تعادل ایستا بطور معناداری عملکرد بهتری نشان دادند این در حالیست که مداخلات خودگفتاری با هر دو نوع کانون توجه، تفاوت معناداری را در تعادل پویای سالمندان موجب نگردید(05/0 P≥). بطور کلی با توجه به نتایج این پژوهش می‌توان گفت، خودگفتاری با دستورالعمل کانون توجه بیرونی و درونی می‌تواند به عنوان یک راهکار شناختی برای بهبود تعادل ایستای سالمندان در نظر گرفته شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The effect of attentional focus types as the self-talk form on static and dynamic balance in elderly women

نویسندگان [English]

  • mansoure Mokaberyan 1
  • Somayeh NamdarTajari 2
1 Assistant professor, faculty of physical education, Shahrood University of Technology, Shahrood, Iran
2 . Assistant professor, Mazandaran University,Babolsar,Iran
چکیده [English]

Aim: One of the issues that have been considered more than before is the issue of aging. An aging is a period that is accompanied by gradual, progressive and spontaneous erosion changes in most physiological devices and functions of the body. One of the widespread problems that occur in the aging process is the loss of balance, increased fluctuations and the risk of falling. Falling down is one of the most common and most serious problems are aging. For this reason, today, many researchers have drawn attention to the various ways in which elderly people develop their balance. Recently, some researchers have found that the use of cognitive strategies such as self-talk can improve the performance of motor tasks. Self-talk, essentially has two main instructional and motivational functions. Motivational self-talk through increased self-confidence and instructional self-talk by enhancing focus on techniques improve their sports performance and learning skills. On the one hand, it is important to increase the effectiveness of the instructions in order to focus on the focus. Wolfe's researches (1998-1992), given the constrained action hypothesis in most sports skills as well as balance skills, suggest that the use of external attention in comparison with internal attention during the skill leads to better performance and learning. Several studies have been conducted on motivational and instructional self-talk about different athletic skills and different skill levels that have led to a variety of outcomes, but few studies have considered the scope of balance. So, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of attentional focus types as the self-talk form on static and dynamic balance in elderly women using instructional self-talk focus strategy.
Methodology: The present study was a quasi-experimental study with pre-test and post-test. The experimental group included instructional self-talk with internal focus and instructional self-talk with external attention as well as a control group. The population of the study consisted of all elderly women living in the nursing home in Qazvin who 45 people (66.75 ± 5.65 years) were selected according to the inclusion criteria. Inclusion criteria included Lack of movement restrictions, non-fracture in the lower extremities in the past year and the lack of use of neurological drugs. After the pre-test they were randomly assigned to groups. The control group without self-talk, self-talk group with internal focus and self-talk group with external focus practice their balance skills during the five sessions. At the end of the fifth session, the post- test was conducted using static balance (stork) and dynamic balance (timed up and go) tests. In the stork test, the subject must stand on top of his leg, lift the other leg and stick to the knee of the leg, and simultaneously place his hands on the iliac crest of the pelvis. The time that a person could stand open with his eyes was considered as an indicator of his static balance ability. Each subject performed the test three times and the highest time was recorded. The errors that caused the test to be stopped include lifting the hands from iliac crest of the pelvis, detaching the leg from the knee of the foot and any movement on the foot of the reliance.Each subject performed a three-time test of timed up and go, and his best time was recorded. Since the subject was announcing his stand, the timer began to work, and the timer stopped when it hit the subject back with chair. The self-talk group with the instruction of focus of the internal attention, repeated the words "knee and foot" before each loud performance, which meant "bending slightly knees and maintaining the balance on the foot", and the external attention group referred to the term "target and wall" Which meant "looking at the target mounted on the wall.
Results: One-way ANOVA, mixed ANOVA and repeated measure ANOVA were used to analyze the data. Data was analyzed using SPSS software version 20. The significance level was considered 0.05. The results showed that both self-talk groups performed significantly better than the control group in static balance.
Conclusion: However Self-talk interferences with both types of attentional focus; it was not a significant difference in the dynamic balance of elderly people (P≥0.05). Taking the results into consideration it can be concluded that, self-talk with internal and external focus instructions can be considered as a cognitive strategy to improve the static balance of elderly people.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • balance
  • instructional self-talk
  • internal focus
  • external focus
  • Elderly
1.   Sohbatiha M, Aslankhani MA, Farsi A. [The Effect of Aquatic and Land-Based Exercises on Static and Dynamic Balance of Healthy Male Older People (In Persian)]. Iranian Journal of Ageing. 2011;6(2):54-62.

2.   Adams LJ. The Impact of Balance Training on Balance, Confidence, and Functionality in Assisted Living Adults: University Of Central Oklahoma; 2011.

3.   Tinetti ME. Preventing falls in elderly persons. New England journal of medicine. 2003;348(1):42-9.

4.   Legters K. Fear of falling. Physical therapy. 2002;82(3):264-72.

5.   Kolovelonis A, Goudas M, Dermitzaki I. The effects of instructional and motivational self-talk on students’ motor task performance in physical education. Psychology of Sport and Exercise. 2011;12(2):153-8.

6.   Shumway-Cook A, Woollacott MH. Motor control: theory and practical applications: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 1995.

7.   Inoue M, Suhara T, Sudo Y, Okubo Y, Yasuno F, Kishimoto T, et al. Age-related reduction of extrastriatal dopamine D 2 receptor measured by PET. Life sciences. 2001;69(9):1079-84.

8.   Kaasinen V, Vilkman H, Hietala J, Någren K, Helenius H, Olsson H, et al. Age-related dopamine D2/D3 receptor loss in extrastriatal regions of the human brain. Neurobiology of aging. 2000;21(5):683-8.

9.   Wulf G. Attentional focus and motor learning: a review of 15 years. International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology. 2013;6(1):77-104.

10. Moghaddam A, Vaezmousavi MK, Namazizade M. [The effect of difficult task and instruction of focus attention on balance task performance (In Persian)]. Harekat. 2009; (36): 23-37.

11. Boroujeni ST, Ghaheri B. The effect of motivational self-talk on reaction time. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences. 2011;29:606-10.

12. Chroni S, Perkos S, Theodorakis Y. Function and preferences of motivational and instructional self-talk for adolescent basketball players. Athletic Insight. 2007;9(1):19-31.

13. Palmer SL. A comparison of mental practice techniques as applied to the developing competitive figure skater. The Sport Psychologist. 1992;6(2):148-55.

14. Theodorakis Y, Hatzigeorgiadis A, Chroni S. Self-talk: It works, but how? Development and preliminary validation of the functions of self-talk questionnaire. Measurement in Physical education and exercise Science. 2008;12(1):10-30.

15. Davoudi M, Shetabbushehri N, Abedanzadeh R. [The effect of instructional self-talk frequency on older adultsconduction of motor performance Ahwaz city(In Persian)]. Journal of Gerontology.2017;1(3):21-8.

16. Dana A, Rezaee R, Jalili F, Zamanian F. The effect of instruction and motivational self-talk on performance and retention of discrete and continuous motor tasks. Australian Journal of Applied Sciences. 2011;5(8):312-15.

17. Shariati A, Kalkhoran JF .[The effect of different kinds of self–Talk on balance function of the healthy elderly(In Persian)]. Journal of development and motor learning .2013; 3 )13(: 119-133.

18. Salajeghe A, Saberi Kakhki A, Zareazade M. [The effect of attentional focus types as the self talk form on acquisition and retention of Basketball chest pass(In Persian)]. Motor Behavior.2014;6(16):107-20.

19. Shahbazi N, Khalaji H, Ebrahimi Monfared M. [The Effect of Focus of Attention - Self talk on Balance of Women with Multiple Sclerosis(In Persian)]. amuj. 2016; 19 (1) :44-53

20. Hadavi F. Measurement and evaluation in physical education and exercise science. 1st ed. Tehran: Tarbiat moalem university.2007.

21. AslankHani M A, Farsi A, Fati Rzaie Z, Zamani Sani S H, Aghdasi M T.[Validity and Reliability of the Timed Up & Go and the Functional Reach tests in evaluating fall risk in elderly(In Persian)]. Salmand; 10 (1):2-13.

22. Wulf G, Weigelt M, Poulter D, McNevin N. Attentional focus on suprapostural tasks affects balance learning. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: Section A. 2003;56(7):1191-211.

23. Wulf G. Attentional focus effects in balance acrobats. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport. 2008;79(3):319-25.

24. Wulf G, Landers M, Lewthwaite R, Toöllner T. External focus instructions reduce postural instability in individuals with Parkinson disease. Physical therapy. 2016;89(2):162-8.

25. Chiviacowsky S, Wulf G, Wally R. An external focus of attention enhances balance learning in older adults. Gait & posture. 2010;32(4):572-5.

26. Jackson BH, Holmes AM. The effects of focus of attention and task objective consistency on learning a balancing task. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport. 2011;82(3):574-9.

27. Parhizkar J, Zarghami M, Ghotbi Varzaneh A, Ghorbani A .[Age and attentional focus related differences in postural control. Journal of development and motor learning (In Persian)].2013; 5(4): 41-56

28. Ng SS, Hui-Chan CW. The timed up & go test: its reliability and association with lower-limb impairments and locomotor capacities in people with chronic stroke. Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation. 2005;86(8):1641-7.