تاثیر کانون توجه در شرایط تمرین کم‌خطا و پرخطا بر عملکرد و یادگیری مهارت پرتاب دارت

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار گروه علوم ورزشی، دانشکدة علوم انسانی، دانشگاه دامغان، دامغان، ایران

2 کارشناسی ارشد رفتار حرکتی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد شوشتر، شوشتر، ایران

چکیده

هدف مطالعه حاضر بررسی اثر تعاملی نوع دستورالعمل کانون توجه و دو شیوه یادگیری (کم‌خطا و پرخطا) بر عملکرد و یادگیری مهارت پرتاب دارت بود. این احتمال وجود دارد که با تغییر دشواری کارکردی تکلیف، نوع دستورالعمل کانون توجه اثر متفاوتی بر عملکرد داشته باشد. تعداد60 دانشجوی دختر به طور تصادفی در شش گروه درونی-کم‌خطا، بیرونی‌-کم‌خطا، کنترل-کم‌خطا، درونی-پرخطا، بیرونی-پرخطا و کنترل-پرخطا قرار گرفتند. گروه کم خطا تمرین خود را از فاصله کم نسبت به هدف آغاز و به تدریج فاصله را بیشتر می‌کردند. در گروه پرخطا عکس این قضیه اجرا می‌شد. گروه توجه درونی، توجه خود را به آرنج و مچ دست پرتاب و گروه بیرونی توجه خود را به صفحه دارت معطوف می‌کردند. افراد پس از پیش‌آزمون 5 بلوک 60 کوششی را اجرا کردند و 48 ساعت بعد در آزمون یادداری شرکت نمودند. از آزمون تحلیل واریانس عاملی جهت تحلیل داده‌ها استفاده شد. نتایج نشان داد که در گروه کم‌خطا بین کانون توجه درونی و بیرونی تفاوت معنی‌داری وجود ندارد (p>0.05) اگرچه در شرایط یادگیری پرخطا، بین گروه‌ها تفاوت معنی‌داری مشاهده شد (p=0.043). همچنین نتایج نشان داد در گروه توجه درونی بین شرایط تمرینی کم‌خطا و پرخطا تفاوت معنی‌داری به نفع گروه کم‌خطا وجود دارد (p= 0.012). بر اساس نتایج این پژوهش، به نظر می‌رسد، نقش چالش‌برانگیزی شرایط تمرین در اثرگذاری نوع دستورالعمل کانون توجه، بسیار حائز اهمیت است و پیشنهاد می‌شود در شروع تمرین، در هنگام استفاده از دستورالعمل کانون توجه درونی از یادگیری به شیوه کم خطا استفاده شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effect of Attention Focus in Errorless and Errorful Practice Conditions on Performance and Learning of Dart Throwing Skill

نویسندگان [English]

  • hesam ramezanzade 1
  • Marziyeh Doraneh Kord 2
1 Assistant Professor, Department of Sport Sciences, Faculty of Humanities, Damghan University, Damghan, Iran
2 MSc of Motor Behavior, Islamic Azad University, Shooshtar Branch, Shooshtar, Iran
چکیده [English]

The aim of this study was to investigate the interactional effect of instruction type of attention focus and two methods of learning (errorless and errorful) on performance and learning of dart throwing skill. It is likely that instruction type of attention focus has a different effect on performance when functional difficulty of task changes. 60 female students were randomly assigned to six groups: internal-errorless, external-errorless, control-errorless, internal-errorful, external-errorful and control-errorful. Errorless groups began their practice with low distance from the target and gradually increased the distance. This was opposite in errorful groups. Internal attention groups focused their attention on elbow and wrist of their throwing hand. External attention groups focused their attention on dart board. After pretest, subjects performed 5 blocks (60 trials each block) and participated in retention test after 48 hours. Factor analysis of variance was used to analyze the data. The results showed no significant differences between internal and external focus in the errorless groups (P>0.05), there was a significant difference among the groups in errorful learning condition (P=0.043). There was a significant difference between errorless and errorful conditions in internal focus groups (in favor of errorless group) (P=0.012). It seems that the challenging role of practice condition is very important in the effectiveness of instruction type of attention focus. It is recommend that errorless learning should be used when using internal attention focus instruction at the beginning of practice.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Dart throwing skill
  • errorful learning
  • errorless learning
  • external attention focus
  • internal attention focus
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