اثرمداخله تمرین بدنی بر عملکرد شناختی و فاکتور نوروتروفیک مشتق از مغزدرکودکان مبتلابه اختلال نارسایی توجه/ فزون کنشی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار، دانشکدة علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه مازندران، بابلسر، ایران

2 استاد، دانشکدة تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد، مشهد، ایران

3 استادیار، پژوهشگاه تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی، تهران، ایران

چکیده

هدف از این مطالعه بررسی اثر یک دوره تمرین بدنی بر عملکرد شناختی و فاکتور نروتروفیک مشتق از مغز (BDNF) در کودکان مبتلابه اختلال نارسایی توجه / فزون کنشی (ADHD) بود. این تحقیق به روش نیمه تجربی با طرح پیش‌آزمون و پس‌آزمون اجرا شد. شرکت‌کنندگان شامل 25 دانش‌آموز پسر 10 تا 7 سال مراجعه‌کننده به کلینیک ویژه بیمارستان روان‌پزشکی ابن‌سینا مشهد بودند که به‌طور تصادفی به دو گروه (کنترل و تجربی) تقسیم شدند. گروه تجربی در یک برنامه ورزشی به مدت 24 جلسه و هر جلسه به مدت 75 دقیقه، شرکت کردند. تمامی شرکت‌کنندگان آزمون استروپ و آزمون برو نه برو را قبل و بعد از تمرین ورزشی اجرا کردند. همچنین نمونه‌های خونی شرکت‌کنندگان برای اندازه‌گیری BDNF سرم قبل و بعد از دوره مداخله فعالیت بدنی گرفته شد. تجزیه‌وتحلیل داده‌ها با استفاده از آزمون‌ ANCOVA انجام شد. نتایج نشان داد که عملکرد شناختی کودکان در گروه تجربی در آزمون‌های استروپ و برو نه برو در مقایسه با گروه کنترل تفاوت معنی‌داری داشته است. همچنین سطوح BDNF سرم نیز افزایش معنا‌داری را نشان داد (05/0>p). این یافته‌ها نشان داد که یک برنامه ورزشی سازمان‌یافته به بهبود عملکرد شناختی و درمان کودکان مبتلابه ADHD کمک می‌کند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effect of Exercise Intervention on Cognitive function and Brain-derived neurotrophic factor in children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

نویسندگان [English]

  • mozhgan memarmoghaddam 1
  • Hamidreza Taheri Torbati 2
  • Ali Kashi 3
1 Assistant Professor, Faculty of Sport Sciences, University of Mazandaran, Babolsar, Iran
2 Professor, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran
3 Assistant Professor, Sport Sciences Research Institute, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

The aim of this study was to examine the effect of a course of physical exercise on cognitive function and Brain-derived neurotrophic factor in children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). This research was performed semi-experimental. Participants included 25 male students aged 7 to 10 years old referred to Ibn Sina Hospital in Mashhad, and randomly divided into two groups (control and experimental). The experimental group participated in an exercise program for 24 sessions, 75 minutes per session. The control group did not receive any intervention. All the participants performed Stroop Test and Go no go Test before and after the exercise. Also, blood samples were taken from these participants to measure serum BDNF before and after exercise. The data were analyzed using ANCOVA. The results demonstrated that cognitive function of the children in experimental group regarding Stroop and Go no go tsts showed significant difference compared with the control group, also Serum BDNF levels showed a significant increase (p<0.05). These results suggest that the organized exercise program helps to improve cognitive function and treat in children with ADHD.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
  • brain derived neurotrophic factor
  • cognitive function
  • motor intervention
1. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders:
Fifth Edition (DSM-5). American Psychiatric Association (APA); 2013.
2. Berwid G HJ. Emerging Support for a Role of Exercise in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity
Disorder Intervention Planning. NIH Public Access Author Manuscript. 2012;14: 51-543.
3. Alvarez JA EE. Executive function and the frontal lobes:A meta-analytic review.
Neuropsychology Review. 2006;16- 25.
4. Victor G CM, Garrett A, Menon V, Weems CF,Reiss AL. Posttraumatic stress ymptoms
and brain function during a response-inhibition task: An FMRI study in youth. Depress
Anxiety. 2008;25:14-25.
5. Dillon DG PD. Inhibition of action, thought and emotion: A selective neurobiological
review. Appl Prevent Psychol. 2007;12:99-114.
6. Barkley RA. Behavioral inhibition, sustained attention, and executive
functions:Constructing a unifying theory of ADHD. Psychological Bulletin.1997;121:65-
94.
7. Bergman O WL, Lichtenstein P, Eriksson E, Larsson H. Study on the possible ssociation
of brain-derivedneurotrophicfactorpolymorphism with the developmental course of
symptoms of attention deficit and hyperactivity. International Journal of
Neuropsychopharmacology.2011;14: 1367-76.
8. Jeong HI JE, Kim SH, Kim TW, Baek SB, Choi SW. Treadmill exercise improves spatial
learning ability by enhancing brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression in the
attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder rats. JER. 2014;10:162-7.
9. KimH HHI, Kim DH, Ko IG, Lee SS, Kim SE, et al. Treadmill exercise and
methylphenidate ameliorate symptoms of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder through
enhancing dopamine synthesis and brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression in
spontaneous hypertensive rats. Neuroscience Letters. 2011;504:35-9.
10. Rommel AS HJ, Mill J, Asherson PH, Kuntsi J. Protection From Genetic Diathesis in
Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Possible Complementary Roles of Exercise.
JAACAP. 2013;52:900-10.
11. Chang YK HC, Huang C.G, Hatfield BD, Hung TM. Effects of an Aquatic Exercise
Program on Inhibitory Control in Children with ADHD: A Preliminary Study. Archives of
Clinical Neuropsychology. 2015;29: 217-23.
12. Neudecker CH MN, Reimers AK, Woll A. Exercise Interventions in Children and
Adolescents With ADHD: A Systematic Review. Atten Disord. 2015:1-19.
13. Smith AL HB, Linnea K, McQuade JD, Tomb T, Vaughn AJ, et a. Pilot Physical Activity
Intervention Reduces Severity of ADHD Symptoms in Young Children. Atten Disord.
2013;17:70-82.
14. Chuang LY TY, Chang YK, Huang CJ, Hung TM. Effects of acute aerobic exercise on
response preparation in a Go/No Go Task in children with ADHD: An ERP study. JSHS.
2015;4:82-8.
اثر مداخلة تمرین بدنی بر عملکرد شناختی و فاکتور نوروتروفیک مشتق از مغز ... 223
15. Piepmeier A SC, Whedon M, Williams L M, Davis M E, Henning DA, Park SY, et al.
The effect of acute exercise on cognitive performance in children with and without
ADHD. Sport and Science. 2015;4:97-104.
16. Pontifex MB SB, Raine LB. Exercise Improves Behavioral, Neurocognitive, and
Scholastic Performance in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.
Pediatrics. 2013;162: 543-51.
17. Pan CY TC, Chu CH, Sung MC, Huang CY, Ma WY. Effects of Physical Exercise
Intervention on Motor Skills and Executive Functions in Children With ADHD: A Pilot
Study. Attention Disorders. 2015;15:1-14.
18. Jasmin IR. The Behavioral Effects of Increased Physical Activity on Preschoolers at Risk
for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Illinois Digital Environment for Access to
Learning.2011.
19. Verret C GM, Berthiaume C, Gardiner P, Beliveau L. A physical activity program
improves behavior andcognitive functions in children with ADHD: An exploratory study.
Attention Disorders. 2012;16:71-80.
20. Hillman CH SE, Jerome GJ. Acute cardiovascular exercise and executive control
function. JOP. 2003;48:307-14.
21. Bussing R FM, Harwo M, Hou H, Garvan CW, Eyberh SM, et al. Parent and teacher
SNAP-IV rating of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms: psychometric
properties and normative ratings from school district sample. Assessment. 2008; 15:317-
28.
22. Pasha Sharifi H. [Theory and Application of Intelligence and Personality Tests (in
Persian)]. Tehran: Sokhan; 2011.p. 555-45.
23. Khodadadi M, Mashhadi A, Amman H. [Stroop test software. In: Sciences (in Persian)].
SRIoB, editor. Tehran2009.
24. Qadiri F JA, Ashayeri, H, Gazi Tabatabai M. [The Role of cognitive rehabilitation in
reducing defects of executive functions and symptoms of compulsive obsessive in schizo -
obsessive patients (in Persian)]. Rehabilitation. 2006;4:15-24.
25. Goekint M PKD, Roelands B, Njemini R. Bautmans I, Mets T, Meeusen R. Strength
training does not influence serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Eur J Appl Physiol.
2010;110:285-93.
26. Karvonen MJ KE, Mustala O. The effects of training on heart rate: a longitudinal study.
Ann Med Exp Biol Fenn. 1957;35:307-15.
27. Tang SW CE, Hui T, Helmeste D, Law C. Influence of exercise on serum brain-derived
neurotrophic factor concentrations in healthy human subjects. Neuro Science. 2008;43:62-
5.
28. Mirzaee S, Fallah Mohammadi Z, Hajizadeh Moghaddam A, Fathi R, Alizadeh R,
Ranjbar R. Effect of 8 weeks of endurance training with different periods of brain-derived
neurotrophic factor levels in plasma of rats. Research in the sciences of physical activity.
2011; 10: 115 -128. [Persian].
224 رشد و یادگیری حرکتی _ ورزشی، دورة 10 ، شمارة 2، تابستان 1397
29. Dehghan F BF, Amiri N, Pishyareh E, Safarkhani M. [The Effectiveness of Using
Perceptual-Motor Practices onBehavioral Disorder among Five to Eight Year Old
Children with Attention Deficit Hyper Activity Disorder (in Persian)]. Advances in
Cognitive Science 2010; 12: 82-96.
30. Cerrillo‐Urbina AJ, García‐Hermoso A, Sánchez‐López M, Pardo‐Guijarro MJ, Santos
Gómez JL, Martínez‐Vizcaíno V. The effects of physical exercise in children with
attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: A systematic review and meta‐analysis of
randomized control trials. Child: care, health and development. 2015 Nov 1;41(6):779-88.
31. Hillman CH, Erickson KI, Kramer AF. Be smart, exercise your heart: exercise effects on
brain and cognition. Nature reviews neuroscience. 2008 Jan;9(1):58.
32. Lee N PS, Kim J. Effects of hippotherapy on brain function, BDNF level, and physical
fitness in children with ADHD. Exerc Nutr Biochem. 2015;19:115-21