تأثیر آموزش مهارت‌های حرکتی بنیادی بر تکانشگری شناختی، تکانشگری حرکتی و توجه پیوسته در دانش‌آموزان با علائم اختلال نارسایی توجه/بیش‌فعالی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناس ارشد روانشناسی بالینی, دانشکده روانشناسی و علوم تربیتی, دانشگاه شیراز, شیراز, ایران

2 استاد بخش روانشناسی بالینی, دانشکده روانشناسی و علوم تربیتی, دانشگاه شیراز, شیراز, ایران

3 دانشیار بخش تربیت بدنی, دانشکده روانشناسی و علوم تربیتی, دانشگاه شیراز, شیراز, ایران

چکیده

اختلال نارسایی توجه/بیش‌فعالی از جمله اختلالات رشدی عصبی رایج میان کودکان می‌باشد که می‌تواند مشکلات متعددی را در زمینه‌های گوناگون شناختی، اجتماعی و تحصیلی ایجاد کند. پژوهش حاضر باهدف بررسی تأثیر مهارت‌های حرکتی بنیادی بر تکانشگری شناختی، تکانشگری حرکتی و توجه پیوسته در دانش ‌آموزان مقطع ابتدایی با علائم اختلال نارسایی توجه/بیش‌فعالی انجام شد. روش پژوهش، شبه‌آزمایشی با طرح پیش‌آزمون-پس‌آزمون بود. جامعه آماری پژوهش، شامل کلیه دانش‌آموزان پسر ثبت‌نام‌شده در مقاطع ابتدایی دبستان‌های دولتی شهر شیراز بوده‌است. نمونه‌ی موردمطالعه 38 نفر از دانش‌آموزان با علائم بیش‌فعالی بودند که به‌صورت چندمرحله‌ای و سپس بر اساس مقیاس درجه‌بندی سوانسون، نولان و پلهام (SNAP-IV) انتخاب گردیدند. دانش‌آموزان به‌صورت تصادفی در دو گروه کنترل (17 نفر) و آزمایش (21 نفر) قرار داده‌شدند. گروه آزمایش به مدت ده جلسه در برنامه مهارت‌های حرکتی بنیادی تمرین داده‌شد و گروه کنترل به فعالیت‌های روزمره خود پرداخت. یک‌جلسه قبل و پس از مداخلات، هردو گروه از دانش‌آموزان با استفاده از آزمون‌های عملکرد پیوسته، مازهای پورتئوس، جای‌گذاری اوکانر و آزمون پاس ایفرد مورد سنجش قرار گرفتند. تحلیل داده‌ها با استفاده از روش تحلیل واریانس طرح‌های تکراری مختلط انجام گردید و نشان‌داد که تمرین مهارت‌های حرکتی بنیادی می‌تواند در عملکرد کودکان با علائم بیش‌فعالی در تکانشگری حرکتی تأثیر معناداری داشته‌باشد. اما شواهدی مبنی بر تأثیر تمرینات ذکرشده بر توجه پیوسته و تکانشگری شناختی یافت‌نشد. باتوجه به یافته‌های پژوهش می‌توان نیتجه‌گرفت تمرین مهارت‌های حرکتی بنیادی به‌صورت کوتاه‌مدت می‌تواند بر کنترل حرکت و تکانه در کودکان با علائم نارسایی توجه/بیش‌فعالی مفید واقع گردد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effect of Fundamental Motor Skills Training on Cognitive Impulsivity, Motor Impulsivity and Sustained Attention in Students with ADHD Symptoms

نویسندگان [English]

  • seyedeh bahar banikarimi 1
  • habib hadianfard 2
  • robabeh rostami 3
1 M.A of clinical psychology, college of psychology and education, Shiraz university, Shiraz, Iran
2 professor of clinical psychology, college of psychology and education, shiraz university, shiraz, iran
3 associate professor of physical education and sport sciences, college of psychology and education, shiraz university, shiraz, iran
چکیده [English]

Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), is one of the common neurodevelopmental disorders in children, can produce several cognitive, social and educational difficulties. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of fundamental motor skills (FMS) on cognitive impulsivity, motor impulsivity and sustained attention in primary school children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms. The research method was quasi-experimental with pre-test-post-test design. The study population consists of all elementary school students of Shiraz schools. The sample used for the study was 38 students with ADHD symptoms which was selected by multi-level sampling based on SNAP-IV and randomly divided in two groups, experiment (21 subjects) and control (17 subjects). The experimental group trained for ten sessions in the FMS program and the control group dealt its daily activities. Then one session before and after of interventions all of the two groups were measured with using of continuous performance, dexterity, porteus maze and passing test. Data were analyzed by mixed repeated measures ANOVA and indicate that FMS training can have a positive effect on children performance in motor impulsivity, but there was no evidence of the effect of mentioned interventions on Cognitive impulsivity and sustained attention. According to the findings of the study, can be concluded that short term FMS training can be useful in controlling movement and impulses in children with ADHD symptoms.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
  • cognitive impulsivity
  • fundamental motor skills
  • motor impulsivity
  • sustained attention
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