تأثیر اطلاعات افزوده پیشخوراندی به مشاهده الگو بر یادگیری مهارت پرتاب آزاد پنالتی مینی بسکتبال در کودکان

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری یادگیری حرکتی، دانشکدۀ تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد، مشهد، ایران

2 دانشجو دکتری رشد حرکتی، دانشکدۀ تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

3 استادیار رفتار حرکتی، دانشکدۀ تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز، اهواز، ایران

چکیده

هدف از تحقیق حاضر بررسی تأثیر اطلاعات افزودۀ پیشخوراندی به مشاهدۀ الگو بر یادگیری مهارت پرتاب آزاد مینی‌بسکتبال در کودکان بود. برای این منظور 45 کودک ده‌ساله به‌صورت در دسترس به‌عنوان نمونۀ تحقیق انتخاب شدند و در سه گروه (اطلاعات افزودۀ پیشخوراندی+ مشاهده، مشاهده+ بازخورد آگاهی از نتیجه و کنترل (C)) تقسیم شدند. روش تحقیق نیمه‌تجربی و طرح تحقیق به‌صورت پیش‌آزمون-پس‌آزمون و آزمون یادداری بود. تکلیف مورد استفاده در این تحقیق مهارت پرتاب آزاد مینی‌بسکتبال بود. ابتدا شرکت‌کنندگان در مرحلۀ پیش‌آزمون 15 کوشش را انجام دادند. مرحلۀ اکتساب در 6 بلوک 15 کوششی مشاهده و در پی آن تمرین بدنی بود. آزمون یادداری نیز 48 ساعت بعد از آخرین بلوک تمرینی در 15 کوشش اجرا شد. داده‌ها از طریق روش‌های آماری تحلیل واریانس مرکب، تحلیل واریانس بین­گروهی و آزمون تعقیبی توکی تحلیل شدند. نتایج نشان داد که هم در مرحلۀ اکتساب و هم در مرحلۀ یادداری گروه اطلاعات افزودۀ پیشخوراندی + مشاهده که قبل از مشاهده در مورد کیفیت مدل آگاهی کسب کرده بودند، عملکرد بهتری را نسبت به دو گروه دیگر از خود نشان دادند (05/0P<). در کل نتایج این تحقیق نشان داد که آگاهی از عملکرد مدل قبل از مشاهده نسبت به زمانی‌که بعد از نمایش آگاه می‌شویم، یادگیری یک تکلیف پرتابی را معنادارتر می‌کند. بنابراین پیشنهاد می‌شود که از اطلاعات پیشخوراندی در مورد کیفیت مدل قبل از مشاهده، به‌منظور بهبود بهتر عملکرد آزمودنی‌ها استفاده شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effect of Feed Forward Augmented Information in Model Observation on Learning Mini Basketball Penalty Free Throw Skill in Children

نویسندگان [English]

  • mohammad hossein zamani 1
  • ayoub hashemi 2
  • rasool abedanzadeh 3
1 PhD. Student of Motor Learning, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran
2 PhD. Student of Motor Development, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
3 Assistant Professor of Motor Behavior, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Shahid Chamran University of Ahwaz, Ahwaz, Iran
چکیده [English]

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of feed forward augmented information in model observation on learning mini basketball free throw skill in children. For this purpose, 45 children (10 years old) were selected as the sample by convenience sampling method and were divided into three groups: feed forward augmented information + observation, observation + KR feedback, and control (C). The research method was semi-experimental and research design was pretest-posttest and retention test. The task used in this study was mini basketball free throw skill. Firstly, the participants performed 15 trials in the pretest. The acquisition phase consisted of 6 blocks of 15 trials of observation followed by physical training. The retention test was performed 48 hours after the last training block in 15 trials. The data were analyzed by mixed analysis of variance, between-group analysis of variance and Tukey post hoc test. The results showed that both at the acquisition and retention phases, feed forward augmented information + observation group who were knowledgeable about the quality of the model prior to the observation showed better performance than the other two groups (P<0.05). Generally, these results showed that knowledge of the model performance before observation can make learning of a throwing task more significant than the time when they were knowledgeable after the observation. Therefore, it is suggested that feed forward augmented information on the quality of the model before observation should be used to improve the performance of the subjects.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Children
  • feed forward
  • free throw
  • learning
  • mini basketball
  • observational learning
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