کاربرد تمرین کَم‌خطا برای تسهیل یادگیری حرکتی ضمنی در کودکان

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار، دانشکدة علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه اصفهان، اصفهان، ایران

2 کارشناسی ارشد، دانشکدة علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه اصفهان، اصفهان، ایران

3 استادیار، دانشکدة علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه اصفهان، اصفهان، ایران

چکیده

هدف از این پژوهش بررسی امکان استفاده از کاهش خطاهای مرحلۀ تمرین برای تسهیل فرایندهای یادگیری حرکتی ضمنی در کودکان بود. تعداد 30 دانش‌آموز (میانگین سن = ۳۲/۱ ±۳۳/۱۱سال) با دید بسته، کیسه‌های نخود را با ترتیب از فاصله‌های نزدیک به دور یا دور به نزدیک پرتاب کردند. گروه نزدیک به دور مرحلۀ اکتساب را از مسافت 2 متری هدف آغاز کرد. سپس تکلیف را از فاصله‌های 3، 4، و 5 متری تمرین کردند. گروه دور به نزدیک مرحلۀ تمرین را از مسافت 5 متری آغاز کرد و سپس به‌ترتیب به 4، 3، و 2 متر رفت. آزمون‌های تکلیف منفرد و تکلیف دوگانۀ تأخیری از  5/3 متری هدف گرفته شد. در مرحلۀ اکتساب، نسبت خطاهای گروه نزدیک به دور (کَم‌خطا) از گروه دور به نزدیک (پُرخطا) به میزان معناداری کمتر بود. در آزمون تکلیف منفرد، تفاوت بین‌گروهی معنا‌دار پیدا نشد. یافته‌ها همچنین نشان داد گروه کم‌خطا، در شرایط تکلیف دوگانه تکلیف را با خطای کمتری نسبت به گروه پرخطا انجام داد. نتیجه‌گیری شد که خطاهای کمتر هنگام تمرین یک مهارت حرکتی می‌تواند استفاده از فرایندهای یادگیری حرکتی ضمنی در کودکان را تسهیل کند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Errorless Practice to Facilitate Implicit Motor Learning in Children

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hamid Salehi 1
  • Mahboubeh Mehrvarz 2
  • Mehdi Rafaei 3
1 Associate Professor, Faculty of Sport Sciences, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran
2 MSc, Faculty of Sport Sciences, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran
3 Assistant Professor, Faculty of Sport Sciences, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran
چکیده [English]

The aim of this study was to determine if the reduction of errors during practice facilitates implicit motor learning processes in children. 30 children (meanage =11.33±1.32 yr) threw beanbags with a near-to-far or a far-to-near order, while their vision was occluded. The near-to-far group began the acquisition phase at a distance of 2 m from the target. Then, they practiced the task at a distance of 3 m, 4 m and finally 5 m from the target. Far-to-near group began the practice phase at the distance of 5 m and then moved to 4 m, 3 m and 2 m respectively. Delayed single-task and dual-task tests were administered at a distance of 3.50 m from the target. During the acquisition phase, the ratio of errors made by the near-to-far (errorless) group was found to be significantly less than the far-to-near (errorful) group. No significant intergroup difference was found in the single-task test. The results also revealed that the errorless group performed the task with less errors than the errorful group in the dual-task condition. It was generally concluded that less errors during practicing a motor skill can facilitate the use of implicit motor learning processes in children.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • dual-task
  • errorless learning
  • implicit learning
  • throwing
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