تأثیر متقابل انتقال پیش‌گستر شنای کرال سینه و پشت روی یادگیری این دو شنا

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 مربی دانشگاه پیام‌نور و دانشجوی دکتری رفتار حرکتی پردیس کیش دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

2 دکتری رفتار حرکتی، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

3 دانشیار رفتار حرکتی، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

چکیده

هدف این مطالعه، مقایسۀ میزان انتقال یادگیری پیش‌گستر بین مهارت‌های شنای کرال سینه و کرال پشت در دختران نوآموز بود. برای این منظور، 60 دانشجو که در درس شنای مقدماتی ثبت‌نام کرده بودند، انتخاب شدند و در چهار گروه (دو گروه آزمایشی و دو گروه کنترل) جای گرفتند. گروه‌های آزمایشی در تکلیف اولیه به مدت 10 جلسه به یادگیری یکی از دو شنای کرال سینه یا پشت پرداخته و سپس به یادگیری تکلیف ثانویه (یکی از دو شنای کرال سینه یا پشت؛ متقابل تکلیف اولیه) پرداختند. شرکت‌کنندگان گروه کنترل فقط در تکلیف ثانویه شرکت کردند. نتایج نشان داد میزان انتقال پیش‌گستر شنای کرال سینه به کرال پشت 06/3 درصد بود که این مقدار انتقال از نظر آماری معنادار نبود (977/0P=). اما میزان انتقال شنای کرال پشت به کرال سینه 45/13درصد بود که این مقدار انتقال از نظر آماری معنادار بود (013/0P=). از سوی دیگر، نتایج آزمون یومان- ویتنی برای مقایسۀ میزان انتقال دو شنا نیز نشان داد که میزان انتقال پیش­گستر شنای کرال پشت به کرال سینه به‌طور معناداری بالاتر از انتقال شنای کرال سینه به کرال پشت است (001/0P=). بنابراین، نتایج تحقیق حاضر از توالی آموزش کرال پشت- کرال سینه در نوآموزان حمایت می­کند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Reciprocal Effect of Proactive Transfer of Front Crawl and Backstroke on Learning of These Two Types of Swimming

نویسندگان [English]

  • Souri Heidari 1
  • Abdolrahman Khezry 2
  • Mahmoud Sheikh 3
1 Department of Physical Education and Sport Science, Payame Noor University , Iran
2 Ph. D of Motor Behavior, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Science, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
3 Associate Professor of Motor behavior, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Science, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

The aim of this study was to compare the transfer of proactive learning between front and back crawl swimming skills in female beginners. 60 students who had registered in elementary swimming course were selected and assigned to four groups (two experimental and two control groups). Experimental groups learned a primary task (front or back crawl swimming) for 10 sessions and then learned the secondary task (front or back crawl swimming; contrary to the primary task). The participants of control groups participates only in secondary task. The results showed that amount of proactive transfer from front crawl to back crawl was 3.06% which was not statistically significant (P=0.977) while the amount of transfer from back crawl to front crawl was 13.45% which was statistically significant (P=0.013). On the other hand, to compare the amount of transfer of these two types of swimming, the results of U Mann Whitney test showed that the amount of proactive transfer of back crawl to front crawl was significantly higher than the amount of transfer of front crawl to back crawl (P=0.001). Therefore, these results support the sequence of back-front crawl swimming instruction in beginners.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Back crawl
  • female beginners
  • front crawl
  • learning
  • proactive transfer
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