تأثیر ترکیب دو شیوۀ تمرینی مشاهده و سایه‌زنی بر یادگیری مهارت پرتاب دارت

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری رفتار حرکتی، دانشکدۀ تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد، ایران

2 استادیار، گروه رفتار حرکتی، دانشکدۀ علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه بوعلی سینا، همدان، ایران

چکیده

پژوهش حاضر با هدف بررسی تأثیر ترکیب دو شیوۀ تمرینی مشاهده و سایه‌زنی بر یادگیری مهارت پرتاب دارت صورت گرفت. بدین‌منظور 60 دانش‌آموز دختر دبیرستانی داوطلب (19-17 سال)، انتخاب شدند و بعد از اجرای پیش‌آزمون به‌طور تصادفی در پنج گروه مشاهده‌ای، سایه‌زنی، فیزیکی، ترکیبی (مشاهده ـ سایه‌زنی) و کنترل قرار گرفتند. گروه‌های تمرینی در مرحلۀ اکتساب، مهارت پرتاب دارت را براساس دستورالعمل ویژۀ هر گروه 60 مرتبه تمرین کردند. ده دقیقه پس از مرحلۀ اکتساب، آزمون یادداری/انتقال فوری اجرا شد و پس از 24 ساعت بی‌تمرینی آزمون یادداری/ انتقال تأخیری انجام گرفت. آزمون تحلیل واریانس با اندازه‌های تکراری (سطح معناداری 05/0) نشان می‌دهد گروه‌ها به‌طور معناداری عملکرد بهتری در مقایسه با گروه کنترل دارند (05/0>P). همچنین گروه فیزیکی و گروه ترکیبی در مقایسه با گروه‌های مشاهده و سایه‌زنی به‌طور معناداری عملکرد بهتری دارند (05/0>P). میزان یادگیری گروه ترکیبی برابر با تمرین فیزیکی است (05/0P<). به‌طور کلی، نتایج این پژوهش نشان می‌دهد با ترکیب مشاهده و سایه‌زنی، یادگیری برابر با تمرین فیزیکی رخ می‌دهد. این یافته‌ها پیشنهاد می‌دهد با توجه به اینکه این شیوۀ تمرینی، در هر زمان و هر مکان و با حداقل امکانات قابل اجراست، می‌تواند زمان و هزینه‌های آموزشی را کاهش دهد و حتی در شرایطی خاص جایگزین تمرین فیزیکی شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effect of Combined Observational and Shadow Practices on Learning Dart Throw Skill

نویسندگان [English]

  • Narges Abdoli 1
  • Nasrin Parsaei 2
  • hassan rohbanfard 2
1 PhD Student of Motor Behavior, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran
2 Assistant Professor, Motor Behavior Department, Faculty of Sports Sciences, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran
چکیده [English]

The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of combined observational and shadow practices on learning dart throwing skill. 60 female high school students (17-19 years old) who volunteered to participate in this study were selected and randomly assigned to 5 groups after pretest: observational, shadow, physical, combined (observational-shadow) and the control. During the acquisition phase, the practice groups practiced 60 trials of dart throwing skill based on the specific instructions for each group. 10 minutes after the acquisition phase, immediate retention/transfer tests were conducted and after 24 hours of detraining, delayed transfer/ retention tests were carried out. ANOVA with repeated measures (P=0.05) revealed that practice groups had significantly better performances than the control group (P>0.05). Also, physical and combined groups had significantly better performances than the observational and shadow groups (P<0.05). The combined group enjoyed learning equal to physical practice (P<0.05). Overall, the results indicated that combined observation and shadow practices resulted in learning equal to physical practice. These findings suggest that as this practice method can be applied anytime and anywhere with minimum requirements, it can reduce the educational time and costs and even it can be replaced by physical practice under specific circumstances.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • combined practice
  • dart throw skill
  • observational learning
  • shadow practice
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