Validity and Reliability of Persian Version of StudentAttitude Scale Toward Physical Education (SATPES))

Document Type : Research Paper


1 MSc in Motor Behavior, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

2 Professor, Faculty ofPhysical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Tehran, TehranIran

3 Associate Professor, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran


Attitude plays an important role in success and is one of the aspects that
affect students’ learning. The aim of the present study was to investigate the
validity and reliability of Persian version of Student’s Attitude Toward
Physical Education Scale (SATPES). This study was descriptive-correlation
and the statistical population consisted of all 12-14-year-old students of 1st
grade of middle schools in Tehran city. Student’s Attitude Toward Physical
Education Scale (SATPES) was used in this study and Subramaniam and
Silverman (2000) had validated it. It included two subscales and 20 items
with 5-point Likert responses and 415 questionnaires of this scale were
completed by students. Test-retest method was applied in order to calculate
the temporal reliability and Cronbach’s alpha was used to determine internal
consistency. To determine construct validity, confirmatory and exploratory
factor analyses were applied. The results showed that Persian version of
SATPES supported two dimensional approach of attitude in enjoyment and
benefit with 20 items; thus validity (fit indexes were above the acceptable
level of 0.9) and reliability (above the acceptable level of 0.7) of the scale
were confirmed. In conclusion, Persian version of Student’s Attitude Toward
Physical Education Scale is recommended to measure students’ attitude


Hu, H. H., Duan, J. L., Wang, G., & Arao, T. (2014). "Reliability and Validity of a
Chinese Version of the Students’ Attitudes toward Physical Education Scale and Its
Related Factors". Advances in Physical Education, 4, 181-189.
2. Solmon, M. A. (2003). "Student issues in physical education classes: Attitudes, cognition,
and motivation". In S. J. Silverman, & C. D. Ennis (Eds.), Student learning in physical
education: Applying research to enhance instruction(pp. 147–163). Champaign, IL:
Human Kinetics.
3. Morgan, C. T. (2000). "Introduction to Psychology". (Translation: Husnu Arıcı andOrhan
Aydın). (Fourteenth Print). Ankara: Meteksan Inc.
4. Morris, C. G. (2002). "Psikolojiyi Anlamak, (Understanding the Psychology).(Translation
Editors: Belgin Ayvasık, Melike Sayıl)". Ankara: Turkish Psychiatrists Society
Publications No: 23.
5. Subramaniam, P. R., & Silverman, S. (2007). "Middle School Students’ Attitudes toward
Physical Education". Teaching and Teacher Education, 23, 602-611
6. Subramaniam, P. R., & Silverman, S. (2000). "Validation of Scores from an Instrument
Assessing Student Attitude toward Physical Education". Measurement in Physical
Education and Exercise Science, 4, 29-43.
7. Portman, P. A. (1995). "Who Is Having Fun in Physical Education Classes? Experiences
of Six-Grade Students in Elementary and Middle Schools". Journal of Physics Teacher
Education, 14, 445-453.
8. Silverman, S., & Subramaniam, P. R. (1999). "Student attitude toward physical education
and physical activity:Areview of measurement issues and outcomes". Journal of Teaching
in Physical Education,19, 96–124.
9. Cronbach, L. J. (1971). "Test validation". In R. L. Thorndike (Ed.), Educational
measurement (2nd ed.,pp. 443–507). Washington, DC: American Council on Education.
10. Messick, S. (1989). "Validity". In R. L. Linn (Ed.), Educational measurement (3rd ed., pp.
13–103). New York: Macmillan.
11. Demirhan G, Altay F. Lise birinci sınıf öğrencilerinin beden eğitimi ve spor dersine
ilişkin tutumları ölçeği II. Spor Bilimleri Dergisi, 2001; 12(2): 9-20
12. Insko, C. A., & Schopler, T. (1972). "Experimental social psychology". New York:
13. Bagozzi, R. P., & Burnkrant, R. E. (1979). "Attitude organization and attitude–behavior
relationship". Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37, 913–929.
14. Mohsin, S. M. (1990). "Attitude: Concept, formation and change". New Delhi, India:
15. Oppenheim, A. N. (1992). "Questionnaire design, interviewing and attitude
measurement". New York: St. Martin’s Press.
482 رشد و یادگیری حرکتی _ ورزشی، دورة 10 ، شمارة 4، زمستان 1397
16. Zajonc, R. B., & Markus, H. (1982). "Affective and cognitive factors in preferences".
Journal of Consumer Research, 9, 123–131.
17. Hilgard, E. R. (1980). The trilogy of mind: "Cognition, affection, and conation. Journal of
the History of Behavioral Sciences", 16, 107–117.
18. Reddy, S.,&LaBarbera, P. (1985). "Hierarchical models of attitude". Multivariate
Behavioral Research, 20, 451–471.
19. Triandis, H. C. (1971). "Attitude and attitude change". New York: Wiley.
20. Ajzen, I. (1993)."Attitude theory and the attitude–behavior relation". In D. Krebs & P.
Schmidt (Eds.), New directions in attitude measurement (pp. 41–57). New York:
21. Brustad, R. J. (1991). "Children’s perspectives on exercise and physical activity:
Measurement issues and concerns". Journal of School Health, 61, 228–230.
22. Brustad, R. J. (1998). "Developmental considerations in sport and exercise psychology
measurement". In J. L. Duda (Ed.), Advances in sport and exercise psychology
measurement (pp. 452–461). Morgantown, WV: Fitness Information Technology.
23. Welk, G. J. (1999). "The youth physical activity promotion model: A conceptual bridge
between theory and practice". Quest, 51, 5–23.
24. Daouk, L., McDowall, A., y Rust, J. (2006). "A multi-method approach to cross cultural
test adaptation: A focus on qualitative methods".
25. Thomas, O., Maynard, I., & Hanton, S. (2004). "Temporal aspects of competitive anxiety
and self-confidence as a function of anxiety perceptions". The Sport Psychologist, 18,
26. Hooman Heidarali. [Structural Equation Modeling Using LISREL Software (in Persian)].
Tehran, Samt. 2006. P. 109-120.
27. Kline, P. (2005). "Principles and practice of structural equation modelling". New York:
The Guildford Press.
28. Sarmad, Zohre. Bazargan, Abbas. Hejazi, Elaheh. [Research methods in behavioral
sciences (in Persian)]. Agah publication. 2009 P. 170-240.
29. Seif, Aliakbar. [Measurement, Testing and Evaluation in Psychology and Educational
Sciences. (in persian)]. 2015. P. 526-593.
30. Raykov, T. (2004). "Behavioral scale reliability and measurement invariance evaluation
using latent variable modeling". Behavior Therapy, 35(2). Pp: 299-331.
31. Hu, L., & Bentler, P.M. (1999). "Cutoff criteria for fi t indexes in covariance structure
analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives". Structural Equation Modeling: A
Multidisciplinary Journal, 6. Pp: 1-55.
32. Bartlet, M. S. (1950). "The stiff significance in factor analysis". British Journal of
Psychology, (3). Pp: 77-85.
33. Kaiser, H. (1961). "A note on Guttman's lower bound for the number of common factors".
Multivariate Behavioral Research, 1. Pp: 249-276.