تأثیر خطای بینایی بر یادگیری یک مهارت حرکتی پرتابی در کودکان

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجو دکتری یادگیری حرکتی، دانشکدۀ تربیت ‌بدنی و علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد، مشهد، ایران

2 استاد رفتار حرکتی، دانشکدۀ تربیت ‌بدنی و علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد، مشهد، ایران

3 . دانشیار رفتار حرکتی، دانشکدۀ تربیت ‌بدنی و علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد، مشهد، ایران

چکیده

هدف از تحقیق حاضر بررسی تأثیر خطای بینایی بر یادگیری یک مهارت هدف‌گیری در کودکان بود. روش تحقیق از نوع نیمه‌تجربی با طرح سنجش مکرر و آزمون یادداری بود. نمونۀ آماری تحقیق 36 نفر از کودکان 10 ساله بودند که به‌صورت در دسترس انتخاب و پس از تخمین سایز هدف به سه گروه ادراک دایرۀ بزرگ‌تر، ادراک دایرۀ کوچک‌تر و گروه کنترل تقسیم شدند. ابزار مورد استفاده در این تحقیق خطای ابینگهاوس نمایش‌داده‌شده بر روی زمین و توپ تنیس برای پرتاب از بالای شانه به سمت هدف بود. روش اجرا بدین‌صورت بود که، ابتدا شرکت‌کنندگان 10 کوشش را در مرحلۀ پیش‌آزمون اجرا کردند. سپس در مرحلۀ اکتساب 6 بلوک 10 کوششی را اجرا کردند. 48 ساعت پس از آخرین جلسۀ اکتساب آزمون یادداری در 10 کوشش از آزمودنی‌ها گرفته شد. برای تجزیه‌وتحلیل داده‌ها، از آزمون تحلیل واریانس مرکب با اندازه‌گیری تکراری، تحلیل واریانس یکراهه به‌همراه تعقیبی توکی استفاده شد. نتایج این تحقیق نشان داد که هم در مرحلۀ اکتساب و هم در مرحلۀ یادداری بین گروه‌ها تفاوت معناداری مشاهده شد که این تفاوت به نفع گروه ادراک دایرۀ کوچک‌تر بود. در کل، نتایج این تحقیق نشان‌دهندۀ تأثیر سودمند خطای بینایی بر یادگیری یک مهارت ورزشی است. بنابراین، به مربیان و دست‌اندرکاران ورزشی پیشنهاد می‌شود که از این متغیر جهت بهبود عملکردها و بهبود جلسات تمرینی استفاده کنند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effect of Visual Illusion on the Learning of a Targeting Motor Skill in Children

نویسندگان [English]

  • mohammad hossein zamani 1
  • Hamidreza Taheri Torbati 2
  • alireza saberi kakhki 3
1 . PhD Student of Motor Learning, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran
2 Professor of Motor Behavior, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran
3 Associate Professor of Motor Behavior, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran.
چکیده [English]

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of visual illusion on the learning of a targeting motor skill in children. The research method was semi-experimental with repeated measurement design and retention test. The statistical sample consisted of 36 children (10 years old) who were selected by convenience sampling method. They were divided into 3 groups: larger circle perception, smaller circle perception and control after the goal size had been estimated. The Ebbinghaus illusion displayed on the ground and the tennis ball to throw from top of the shoulder towards goal were used in this study. Firstly, the participants performed 10 trials at the pretest stage. Then, they performed six 10-trial blocks in the acquisition phase. 48 hours after the last acquisition session, a retention test was performed in 10 trials. To analyze the data, mixed analysis of variance with repeated measures, one-way analysis of variance and Tukey post hoc test were used. The results showed a significant difference among the groups both in the acquisition and retention phases and this difference was in favor of the smaller circle perception group. In general, the results of this study indicated the beneficial effect of visual illusion on learning a sport skill. Therefore, coaches and sport authorities are suggested to use this variable to improve performances and training sessions

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Acquisition
  • Children
  • retention
  • throwing motor skill
  • visual illusion
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