تأثیر بازخورد خودکنترلی و آزمونگرکنترلی پس از کوشش‌های خوب و ضعیف بر اکتساب و یادگیری تکلیف پرتابی در کودکان فلج مغزی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار گروه رفتار حرکتی، دانشکدة تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

2 استادیار، گروه تربیت بدنی، دانشکده علوم اجتماعی، دانشگاه بین‌المللی امام خمینی، قزوین، ایران

3 دکتری، گروه رفتار حرکتی، دانشکدة تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

چکیده

بازخورد خودکنترل نوعی بازخورد افزوده است که براساس درخواست خود یادگیرنده به وی ارائه می‌شود. هدف تحقیق حاضر مقایسۀ بازخورد خودکنترلی و آزمونگرکنترلی پس از کوشش‌های خوب و ضعیف بر اکتساب و یادگیری تکلیف پرتابی در کودکان فلج مغزی بود. به این منظور 60 کودک مبتلا به فلج مغزی اسپاستیک با دامنۀ سنی 12-7 سال به‌صورت در دسترس از بین مدارس استثنایی شهر تهران انتخاب شدند. آزمودنی‌ها به‌طور تصادفی به سه گروه بازخورد آزمونگرکنترلی پس از کوشش‌های خوب، بازخورد آزمونگرکنترلی پس از کوشش‌های ضعیف و بازخورد خودکنترلی تقسیم شدند. در پایان مرحلۀ اکتساب، گروه خودکنترل به دو زیرگروه خودکنترل پس از کوشش‌های خوب و خودکنترل پس از کوشش‌های ضعیف تقسیم شدند. از آزمون تحلیل واریانس یکطرفه و آزمون تعقیبی توکی در سطح 05/0P< استفاده شد. در مرحلۀ اکتساب، گروه‌ها تفاوت معناداری با یکدیگر نداشتند (64/0P=). اما عملکرد گروه بازخورد خودکنترلی پس از کوشش‌های خوب از تمامی گروه‌ها در مرحلۀ یادداری (001/0P=) و انتقال (001/0P=) بهتر بود. همچنین در شرایط آزمونگرکنترلی، آزمودنی‌های دریافت‌کنندۀ بازخورد پس از کوشش‌های خوب و در شرایط دریافت بازخورد پس از کوشش‌های ضعیف، آزمودنی‌های خودکنترلی پیشرفت بیشتری را از خود نشان دادند. بنابراین، به‌دلیل ظرفیت پایین پردازش اطلاعات در کودکان، نقش انگیزشی بازخورد در شرایط خودکنترلی و پس از کوشش‌های موفق سبب یادگیری بهتر آزمودنی‌ها می‌شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effect of Self – Control and Instructor- Control Feedbacks after Good and Poor Trials on Acquisition and Learning of a Throwing Task in Children with Cerebral Palsy

نویسندگان [English]

  • Fazlollah Bagherzadeh 1
  • Fatemeh Mirakhori 2
  • Morteza Pourazar 3
1 Associate Professor, Department of Motor Behavior, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
2 Assistant Professor, Department of Physical Education, Faculty of Social Sciences, Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin, Iran
3 PhD, Department of Motor Behavior, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Self-controlled feedback is a kind of augmented feedback which is represented by the request of learner. The aim of the present study was to compare self–control and instructor-control feedbacks after good and poor trials on acquisition and learning of a throwing task in children with cerebral palsy. 60 children with cerebral palsy (age range: 7-12 years old) were selected by convenience sampling method from special schools in Tehran city. Participants were randomly divided into three groups: instructor-control feedback after good trials, instructor-control feedback after poor trials, and self-control feedback. At the end of the acquisition phase, participants of self–control group were divided into 2 groups (self–control feedback after good trials and self–control feedback after poor trails). One-way ANOVA test and Tukey post hoc test were used at (P<0.05). In the acquisition phase, no significant differences were observed among the groups (P=0.64). But self-control feedback group after good trials outperformed all groups in retention (P=0.001) and transfer (P=0.001) phases. In instructor-control condition, among those participants receiving feedback after good trials and in feedback received after poor trials condition, self-control subjects showed more progress. Thus, due to the low capacity of information processing in children, motivational role of feedback in self-control condition and after good trials leads to their better learning.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Cerebral palsy
  • good and poor trials
  • instructor-control feedback
  • self-control feedback
  • throwing task
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