تأثیر تمرینات چشم ساکن بر رفتارهای خیرگی و پیش‌بینی ضربۀ پنالتی فوتبال در دروازه‌بان‌های خبره

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری رفتار حرکتی، دانشکدۀ علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه خوارزمی، تهران، ایران

2 دانشیار دانشکدۀ علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران

3 استاد دانشکدۀ علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه خوارزمی، تهران، ایران

4 دانشیار دانشکدۀ علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه الزهرا، تهران، ایران

چکیده

پیش‌بینی موفقیت‌آمیز از کلیدی‌ترین عوامل موفقیت در مهار ضربۀ پنالتی در فوتبال برای دروازه‌بانان است و معرفی مداخله‌های بهینه برای بهبود این توانایی می‌تواند در ارتقای سطح عملکرد مفید باشد. هدف از پژوهش حاضر، بررسی تأثیر تمرینات مبتنی بر چشم آرام بر پیش‌بینی ضربۀ پنالتی توسط دروازه‌بان‌های خبره و رفتارهای خیرگی آنها در حین پیش‌بینی بود. شرکت‌کنندگان پژوهش حاضر، 20 دروازه‌بان خبرۀ شاغل در مسابقات لیگ برتر تهران بودند که به‌صورت تصادفی در دو گروه تمرین و مداخله‌نما قرار گرفتند و آزمون‌ها و مداخله‌های تمرینی را پشت سر گذاشتند. از دستگاه ردیاب چشم پاپیل برای ثبت داده‌های خیرگی و از تکنیک انسداد زمانی برای سنجش پیش‌بینی استفاده شد. فیلمِ 30 ضربۀ پنالتی توسط بازیکنان خبرۀ فوتبال در شرایط واقعی فیلم‌برداری شده و در لحظۀ تماس پا با توپ تصویر مسدود شد که دروازه‌بان‌ها با نگاه به فیلم‌ها باید پیش‌بینی خود از مسیر ضربه را اعلام می‌کردند. نتایج آزمون تحلیل واریانس مرکب 2×4 نشان داد که با وجود یکسان بودن گروه تمرین و مداخله‌نما در پیش‌آزمون (05/0P>)، گروه تمرین در سایر مراحل برتری داشت و این برتری را در شرایط فشار نیز حفظ کرد (05/0P<). تمرینات موجب بهبود میزان موفقیت در پیش‌بینی و تغییر در رفتار خیرگی متناسب با پیش‌بینی موفقیت‌آمیز شد و تغییرات به‌وجودآمده در فاصلۀ 72 ساعت یادداری و آزمون انتقال تحت فشار نیز پایدار بود. از مداخلات تمرینی مبتنی‌بر چشم ساکن، می‌توان به‌عنوان یک بستۀ تمرینی در کنار برنامه‌های تمرین جسمانی و مهارت‌های دروازه‌بان‌های فوتبال استفاده کرد و به این ترتیب به بهبود قابلیت‌های ادراکی و استفادۀ بهینه از نشانه‌های بینایی به آنها کمک کرد

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effect of Quiet Eye Training on Gaze Behaviors and Anticipation of Soccer Penalty Kick in Expert Goalkeepers

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ali Pashabadi 1
  • Alireza Farsi 2
  • abbas bahram 3
  • afkham daneshfar 4
1 Ph.D. Student in Motor Behavior, Faculty of Sport Sciences, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran
2 Associate Professor, Faculty of Sport Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran
3 Professor, Faculty of Sport Sciences, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran
4 Associate Professor, Faculty of Sport Sciences, Alzahra University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Successful anticipation is a key factor for success in saving soccer penalty kick for goalkeepers and introducing optimal interventions to enhance this ability can be useful for improving the level of performance. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of quiet eye training on anticipation of penalty kick by expert goalkeepers and their gaze behaviors during this anticipation. Participants were 20 expert goalkeepers working in Tehran pro league matches who were randomly assigned to training and placebo groups and passed tests and training interventions. Gaze data were registered using Pupil eye tracker and penalty kick anticipation was recorded using temporal occlusion paradigm. 30 videos of real penalty kicks by expert soccer players were recorded and ball-foot contact moments were occluded so that goalkeepers could anticipate the direction of ball kicking in those videos. Results of 2*4 mixed ANOVA showed that despite of homogeneity of training and placebo groups in pretest (P>0.05), training group had advantage in other phases and this advantage was maintained under pressure (P<0.05). The training enhanced successful anticipation and changed gaze behaviors proportional to successful anticipation and these changes were sustained during 72 hours of retention and transfer test under pressure. Training interventions based on quiet eye can be used as a training package along with physical training and skills of soccer goalkeepers and therefore help them to improve perceptual capabilities and to optimally use visual signs.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Anticipation
  • expertise
  • goalkeeping
  • gaze
  • penalty
  • perception
1.   Baker J, Farrow D. Routledge handbook of sport expertise [Internet]. 2015 [cited 2018 Jan 7]. Available from: https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=utMqBwAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg= PP1&dq=J+Baker,+2015+Routledge+handbook+of+sport+expertise+&ots=Z8vK6Uv769&sig=GOB0QbKBdsa3zffoD1t_1T-CaZQ

2.   Abernethy B. Visual Search in Sport and Ergonomics: Its Relationship to Selective Attention and Performer Expertise. Hum Perform. 1988;

3.   Williams AM, Davids K, Williams JG. Visual perception and action in sport. International Journal of Sport Psychology. 1999.

4.   Abernethy B, Zawi K. Pickup of essential kinematics underpins expert perception of movement patterns. J Mot Behav. 2007;

5.   Magill RA. Motor Learning and Control: Concepts and Applications. Curr Biol. 2007;

6.   Alder D, Ford PR, Causer J, Williams AM. The coupling between gaze behavior and opponent kinematics during anticipation of badminton shots. Hum Mov Sci. 2014;

7.   Vickers JN. Visual control when aiming at a far target. J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform. 1996;

8.   Chia SJ, Chow JY, Kawabata M, Dicks M, Lee M. An exploratory analysis of variations in quiet eye duration within and between levels of expertise. Int J Sport Exerc Psychol. 2017;

9.   Loffing F, Hagemann N. Skill differences in visual anticipation of type of throw in team-handball penalties. Psychol Sport Exerc. 2014;

10.           (CISS) JV-CI in SS, 2016 undefined. Origins and current issues in Quiet Eye research. momentum-quarterly.org [Internet]. [cited 2018 Jan 4]; Available from: https://www.momentum-quarterly.org/ojs2/index.php/ciss/article/view/36

11.           Abernethy B. Visual Search in Sport and Ergonomics: Its Relationship to Selective Attention and Performer Expertise. Hum Perform [Internet]. 1988 Dec [cited 2017 Dec 29];1(4):205–35. Available from: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1207/ s15327043hup0104_1

12.           Panchuk D, Vickers JN. Gaze behaviors of goaltenders under spatial-temporal constraints. Hum Mov Sci. 2006;

13.           van der Kamp J, Farrow D, Abernethy B. Exploring the merits of perceptual anticipation in the soccer penalty kick. Motor Control. 2011;

14.           Williams A, Ford P, … DE-AC, 2011 undefined. Perceptual‐cognitive expertise in sport and its acquisition: Implications for applied cognitive psychology. Wiley Online Libr [Internet]. [cited 2018 Jan 7]; Available from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/ doi/10.1002/acp.1710/full

15.           日本教科教育学会誌 GT-, 1981 undefined. Marteniuk, RG,(1976), Information Processing in Motor Skills., Holt, Rinehart and Winston. ci.nii.ac.jp [Internet]. [cited 2018 Jan 8]; Available from: http://ci.nii.ac.jp/naid/110008093860/

16.           Williams AM, Ward P, Smeeton NJ, Allen D. Developing anticipation skills in tennis using on-court instruction: Perception versus perception and action. J Appl Sport Psychol. 2004;

17.           North JS, Williams AM, Hodges N, Ward P, Ericsson KA. Perceiving patterns in dynamic action sequences: Investigating the processes underpinning stimulus recognition and anticipation skill. Appl Cogn Psychol. 2009;

18.           Williams A, Ward P, … JK-J of E, 2002 undefined. Anticipation skill in a real-world task: measurement, training, and transfer in tennis. psycnet.apa.org [Internet]. [cited 2017 Dec 30]; Available from: http://psycnet.apa.org/journals/xap/8/4/259/

19.           Wilson M, Causer J, sport JV-R handbook of, 2015 undefined. The quiet eye as a characteristic of expertise. books.google.com [Internet]. [cited 2018 Jan 4]; Available from: https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=utMqBwAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PA22&dq=wilson,+causer,+wickers+2015+quiet+eye&ots=Z8vK3Zv9b9&sig=QUw0ooEGy-1cOMZSBkTA9jtKYd8

20.           Corbetta M, neuroscience GS-N reviews, 2002 undefined. Control of goal-directed and stimulus-driven attention in the brain. nature.com [Internet]. [cited 2018 Jan 4]; Available from: https://www.nature.com/nrn/journal/v3/n3/abs/nrn755.html

21.           Causer J, Holmes PS, Williams AM. Quiet eye training in a visuomotor control task. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2011;

22.           Kim S, Sports SL-IJ of A, 2006 undefined. Gaze Behavior of Elite Soccer Goalkeeper in Successful Penalty Kick Defense. search.ebscohost.com [Internet]. [cited 2017 Dec 30]; Available from: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&profile=ehost&scope =site&authtype=crawler&jrnl=15982939&AN=23722330&h=TD4INahaNFCvolLSGO9UhuiDWA92zVTJHEgjAZiBN%2FE5ORCbCZWZTDaE7UqTiIeqYWNRPp3%2Fcl98qYuZAQo3Gw%3D%3D&crl=c

23.           Savelsbergh GJP, Williams AM, Kamp J Van Der, Ward P. Visual search, anticipation and expertise in soccer goalkeepers. J Sports Sci [Internet]. 2002 Jan [cited 2018 Jan 9];20(3):279–87. Available from: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10. 1080/026404102317284826

24.           Woolley TL, Crowther RG, Doma K, Connor JD. The use of spatial manipulation to examine goalkeepers’ anticipation. J Sports Sci. 2015;

25.           WILLIAMS M, DAVIDS K, BURWITZ L, WILLIAMS J. Cognitive Knowledge and Soccer Performance. Percept Mot Skills. 1993;

26.           Savelsbergh GJPP, Van der Kamp J, Williams AM, Ward P. Anticipation and visual search behaviour in expert soccer goalkeepers [Internet]. Ergonomics Sep 15, 2005 p. 1686–97. Available from: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00140130500101346

27.           Abernethy B, Wood JM, Parks S. Can the anticipatory skills of experts be learned by novices? Res Q Exerc Sport. 1999;

28.           Hagemann N, Strauss B, Cañal-bruland R. Training Perceptual Skill by Orienting Visual Attention. J Sport Exerc Psychol. 2006;

29.           Hagemann N, Memmert D. Coaching anticipatory skill in badminton: Laboratory versus field-based perceptual training. Journal of Human Movement Studies. 2006.

30.           Murgia M, Sors F, Muroni AF, Santoro I, Prpic V, Galmonte A, et al. Using perceptual home-training to improve anticipation skills of soccer goalkeepers. Psychol Sport Exerc. 2014;

31.           Vine SJ, Moore LJ, Wilson MR. Quiet eye training facilitates competitive putting performance in elite golfers. Front Psychol. 2011;

32.           Wood G, Wilson MR. Quiet-eye training for soccer penalty kicks. Cogn Process [Internet]. 2011 Aug 13 [cited 2018 Jan 9];12(3):257–66. Available from: http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s10339-011-0393-0

33.           Harle SK, Vickers JN. Training Quiet Eye Improves Accuracy in the Basketball Free Throw. Sport Psychol [Internet]. 2001 Sep [cited 2018 Jan 9];15(3):289–305. Available from: http://journals.humankinetics.com/doi/10.1123/tsp.15.3.289

34.           Fischer L, Rienhoff R, Tirp J, Baker J, Strauss B, Schorer J. Retention of quiet eye in older skilled basketball players. J Mot Behav. 2015;

35.           Causer J, Bennett SJ, Holmes PS, Janelle CM, Williams AM. Quiet eye duration and gun motion in elite shotgun shooting. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2010;

36.           Miles CAL, Wood G, Vine SJ, Vickers JN, Wilson MR. Quiet eye training aids the long-term learning of throwing and catching in children: Preliminary evidence for a predictive control strategy. Eur J Sport Sci. 2017;

37.           Hancock DJ, Ste-Marie DM. Gaze behaviors and decision making accuracy of higher- and lower-level ice hockey referees. Psychol Sport Exerc. 2013;

38.           Bernardin D, Kadone H, Bennequin D, Sugar T, Zaoui M, Berthoz A. Gaze anticipation during human locomotion. Exp Brain Res. 2012;

39.           Vine SJ, Wilson MR. Quiet eye training: Effects on learning and performance under pressure. J Appl Sport Psychol. 2010;

40.           Wood G, Wilson MR. Quiet-eye training, perceived control and performing under pressure. Psychol Sport Exerc. 2012;

41.           Vickers JNJ. Perception, cognition, and decision training: The quiet eye in action. [Internet]. Perception, cognition, and decision training: The quiet eye in action. 2007 [cited 2018 Jan 9]. 273 p. Available from: https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id= 2iVyZNLnVxMC&oi=fnd&pg=PR7&dq=quiet+eye+vickers&ots=aIXOTIxpP4&sig=G2oqHum4TRdRPr0O-VoQrpCYev4

42.           Field A. Discovering Statistics Using SPSS. In: Discovering Statistics Using SPSS. 2009.

43.           Cramer D, Howitt D. The SAGE Dictionary of Statistics: A Practical Resource for Students in the Social Sciences. Statistics. 2004.

44.           Farrow D, Abernethy B. Can anticipatory skills be learned through implicit video-based perceptual training? J Sports Sci. 2002;

45.           Henderson JM. Human gaze control during real-world scene perception. Trends in Cognitive Sciences. 2003.

46.           Williams M, of IG-J, 2002 undefined. A kinematic analysis of the prevalence of pre-impact cues in the football penalty kick. TAYLOR Fr LTD 11 NEW … [Internet]. [cited 2018 Jan 8]; Available from: https://scholar.google.com/scholar?hl=en&as_sdt=0%2C5&q= A+kinematic+analysis+of+the+prevalence+of+pre-impact+cues+in+the+football+penalty+kick&btnG=

47.           Franks I, SOCCER IH-, 1997 undefined. Cues for Goalkeepers-High-tech methods used to measure penalty shot response. Natl SOCCER Coach [Internet]. [cited 2018 Jan 8]; Available from: https://scholar.google.com/scholar?hl=en&as_sdt=0%2C5&q= Cues+for+ Goalkeepers-High-tech+methods+used+to+measure+penalty+shot+response.&btnG=

48.           McMorris T, Colenso S. Anticipation of professional soccer goalkeepers when facing right- and left-footed penalty kicks. Percept Mot Skills. 1996;

49.           Vine SJ, Wilson MR. The influence of quiet eye training and pressure on attention and visuo-motor control. Acta Psychol (Amst). 2011;136(3):340–6.

50.           Broadbent D, Causer J, … AW-E journal of, 2015 undefined. Perceptual-cognitive skill training and its transfer to expert performance in the field: Future research directions. Taylor Fr [Internet]. [cited 2018 Jan 4]; Available from: http://www.tandfonline.com/ doi/abs/10.1080/17461391.2014.957727

51.           Jordet G, Hartman E, Visscher C, Lemmink KAPM. Kicks from the penalty mark in soccer: The roles of stress, skill, and fatigue for kick outcomes. J Sports Sci. 2007;

52.           Wilson MR, Wood G, Vine SJ. Anxiety, Attentional Control, and Performance Impairment in Penalty Kicks. J Sport Exerc Psychol [Internet]. 2009 Dec [cited 2017 Dec 29];31(6):761–75. Available from: http://journals.humankinetics.com/doi/10.1123/ jsep.31.6.761

53.           Eysenck M, Derakshan N, Santos R, Emotion MC-, 2007 undefined. Anxiety and cognitive performance: attentional control theory. psycnet.apa.org [Internet]. [cited 2017 Dec 29]; Available from: http://psycnet.apa.org/journals/emo/7/2/336/