عنوان مقاله [English]
When an athlete takes maximum advantage of his released degrees of freedom, he is called a motor elite. The aim of this study was to investigate the eliteness by combining speed constraint and explicit, errorless and analogical inference constraints. 21 physical education students (three of them were excluded from this study: 21-3=18) from Kharazmi University voluntarily participated in this study. The participants in three distinct groups (explicit, errorless and analogical inference) participated in four sessions; each season consisted of 20 blocks and each block 6 attempts so eventually they had 480 repetitions in dart throe skill. One-way ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis, paired t test and Wilcoxon test were used to investigate the significance of the hypotheses. The results showed that implicit learning emerged as a result of the combination of the speed constraint and the constraints of all three methods (P≤0.05). Adding speed constraint to other training methods (explicit, errorless and analogical inference) makes them implicit and changes the order of the system in errorless method and increases errors. However, for a certain conclusion, subsequent studies are better using muscle activity registration to consider degrees of freedom as a criterion of eliteness. These results can help skill learners, instructors and especially physical education teachers to adopt efficient teaching methods given their time limits.