تأثیر یک دوره بازی‌های ویدئویی فعال بر یادگیری مهارت پرتاب دارت در کودکان دارای اختلال طیف اوتیسم

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد، دانشکده‌ علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز، اهواز، ایران

2 استادیار رفتار حرکتی، گروه رفتار حرکتی، دانشکده‌ علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز، اهواز، ایران

3 استادیار رفتار حرکتی، گروه رفتار حرکتی، دانشکدۀ علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز، اهواز، ایران

چکیده

هدف پژوهش حاضر بررسی تأثیر یک دوره بازی‌های ویدئویی فعال بر یادگیری مهارت دارت در کودکان مبتلا به اختلال طیف اوتیسم بود. در این پژوهش نیمه‌تجربی، 30 کودک دارای اختلال طیف اوتیسم سطح یک شهر اهواز به‌صورت هدفمند انتخاب شدند و با گمارش تصادفی در سه گروه همسان مساوی (تمرین واقعی، تمرین مجازی و گروه کنترل) قرار گرفتند. ابتدا، پیش‌آزمون پرتاب دارت با انجام 10 کوشش در محیط واقعی به‌عمل آمد. سپس افراد گروه‌های تمرینی به مدت چهار جلسه طی دو هفته و در هر جلسه 30 کوشش (سه بلوک 10 کوششی) در مرحلۀ اکتساب تمرین کردند. پس از آخرین جلسۀ اکتساب، پس‌آزمون با اجرای 10 کوشش و 24 ساعت بعد، آزمون یادداری انجام گرفت. سرانجام، 30 دقیقه بعد از آزمون یادداری، آزمون انتقال به‌صورت کانتربالانس در هر دو محیط برای هر سه گروه به‌عمل آمد. تجزیه‌وتحلیل داده‌ها به‌وسیلۀ آزمون تحلیل واریانس مرکب و آزمون‌های تعقیبی در سطح 05/0≥P و با نرم‌افزار SPSS22 انجام گرفت. نتایج نشان داد که در مرحلۀ اکتساب بین دو گروه تمرینی تفاوت معناداری وجود دارد (01/0≥P) و گروه مجازی نسبت به گروه واقعی عملکرد بهتری داشت. همچنین نشان داده شد که در آزمون یادداری و انتقال، گروه مجازی و واقعی نسبت به کنترل عملکرد بهتری داشتند و گروه مجازی نسبت به گروه واقعی دارای پیشرفت بهتری در میانگین نمرات پرتاب دارت بودند. به‌طور کلی، نتایج نشان داد که بازی‌های ویدئویی فعال سبب بهبود عملکرد و یادگیری پرتاب دارت در کودکان دارای اختلال طیف اوتیسم می‌شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effect of Active Video Games on the Learning of Dart Throwing Skill in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

نویسندگان [English]

  • Niloofar Jafari Gandomani 1
  • Rasool Abedanzadeh 2
  • Esmaeel Saemi 3
1 Department of Motor Behavior, Sport Sciences Faculty, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran.
2 Assistant Professor, Department of Motor Behavior, Sport Sciences Faculty, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran.
3 Assistant Professor, Department of Motor Behavior, Sport Sciences Faculty, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran.
چکیده [English]

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of active video games on the learning of dart throwing skill in children with autism spectrum disorder. In this semi-experimental study, 30 children with autism spectrum disorder (level 1) in Ahvaz city were purposively selected and randomly assigned to three equal groups (real practice, virtual practice, and control). Firstly, the dart throwing pretest was performed with 10 real trials. Then, the practice groups practiced for 4 sessions during 2 weeks and 30 trials (3 blocks of 10 trials) per session in the acquisition stage. After the last acquisition session, the posttest was performed by 10 trials and retention test was performed after 24 hours. Finally, the transfer test was performed with the counterbalance manner in both environments for all three groups 30 minutes after the retention test. Data were analyzed by mix analysis of variance and post hoc tests at P≤0.05 using SPSS22 software. The results showed a significant difference between the two practice groups in the acquisition stage (P≤0.01) and the virtual group had better performance than the real group. Also, the results indicated that real and virtual groups had better performance than the control group in the retention and transfer tests, and the virtual group had better progress than the real group in the mean scores of dart throwing. In general, the results showed that active video games improved performance and learning of dart throwing in children with autism spectrum disorder.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • autism
  • dart
  • Kinect
  • virtual environment
  • X-box
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