بررسی تفاوت‌های تغییرپذیری حرکتی و نرمی حرکت در تکلیف دسترسی و چنگ زدن در کودکان و بزرگسالان

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 1 .استادیار رفتار حرکتی، گروه تربیت بدنی، واحد تبریز، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تبریز، ایران

2 .استادیار رفتار حرکتی، پژوهشگاه تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی، تهران، ایران

چکیده

دسترسی و چنگ زدن از اساسی‌ترین مهارت‌های بنیادی انسان است. هدف از این تحقیق بررسی تفاوت‌های تغییرپذیری حرکتی و نرمی حرکت در حرکت دسترسی و چنگ زدن در کودکان و بزرگسالان بود. به این منظور 60 کودک 8 تا 13 ساله به شش گروه تقسیم شدند. تکلیف مورد استفاده شامل دسترسی و گرفتن مکعب با ابعاد 6/3 سانتی‌متر مکعب بود که گرفتن کف دستی را برای همۀ کودکان فراهم می‌کرد. افراد باید با دست برتر مکعب را می‌گرفتند و آن را نزدیک ناحیۀ دهان می‌آوردند. علاوه‌بر این یک گروه بزرگسال نیز در این تحقیق شرکت کردند (میانگین سنی=2/1± 24 سال). شرکت‌کنندگان 10 کوشش را اجرا می‌کردند که متغیرهای کینماتیک شامل میانگین مربعات جرک، جرک بدون بعد، دامنۀ حرکت مفصل آرنج و تغییرپذیری در الگوی هماهنگی محاسبه شد. به‌منظور تحلیل داده‌ها در هر متغیر از طرح تحلیل واریانس یکراهه استفاده شد. نتایج نشان داد که در متغیر میانگین مربعات جرک و جرک بدون بعد گروه‌های سیزده‌ساله نیز تفاوت معنا‌داری با افراد بزرگسال دارند. در متغیر دامنۀ حرکت مفصل آرنج و همچنین تغییرپذیری در الگوی حرکتی نشان داده شد که گروه‌های هشت و نه‌ساله تفاوت معنا‌داری با سایر گروه‌ها دارند، اما تفاوتی بین سایر گروه‌ها وجود نداشت. به‌طور کلی نتایج نشان داد که رشد فرایند دسترسی و چنگ زدن به اوایل کودکی منحصر نمی‌شود. این نتایج با توجه به رشد کنترل حرکتی و همچنین اکتساب ناهمزمان متغیرهای کینماتیک در فرایند یادگیری مهارت حرکتی توجیه شدند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigating Differences of the Movement Variability and Movement Smoothness in Reaching and Grasping Task in Children and Adults

نویسندگان [English]

  • amir dana 1
  • saleh rafiee 2
1 Assistant Professor in Motor Behavior, Department of Physical Education, Gonbad Kavous Branch, Islamic Azad University, Gonbad Kavous, Iran
2 Assistant Professor in Motor Behavior, Sport Science Research Institute of Iran (SSRI), Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Reaching and grasping is one of the most basic fundamental skills. The aim of this study was to address the differences of movement variability and movement smoothness in reaching and grasping in children and adults. 60 children (age range: 8-13 years old) were divided into 6 groups. The task used in the study included reaching and grasping a cube with the dimension of 3.6 cm
3
which provided the palmar grasp for all children. Subjects had to grasp the cube with their dominant hands and brought it near their mouth. In addition, a group of adults participated in this study (age range: 24+1.2). Participants performed 10 trials and kinematic variables including mean squared jerk, dimensionless jerk, range of motion of elbow joint, and variability in coordination pattern were calculated. One-way ANOVA was used to analyze the data in each variable. The results showed that the 13-year-old group was significantly different than adult group in the mean squared jerk and dimensionless jerk. It was observed that 8- and 9-year-old groups had significant differences with other groups in range of motion of elbow joint and variability in coordination pattern; however, there was no differences among other groups. Overall, the results showed that the growth process of reaching and grasping is not limited to the early childhood. These results were interpreted according to the development of motor control and asynchronous acquisition of kinematic variables in the process of movement skill learning.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • grasping
  • movement coordination
  • movement smoothness
  • range of motion
  • reaching
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