تأثیر تمرینات تقلیدی فوری، دوره ای و ترکیبی بر عملکرد و یادگیری حرکتی دختران 12-9 سال کاتا کار مبتدی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری، گروه یادگیری و کنترل حرکتی، دانشکدة تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه فردوسی، مشهد، ایران

2 دانشیار، گروه رفتار حرکتی و روان‌شناسی ورزشی، دانشکدة تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

چکیده

به لحاظ نظری، نمایش مهارت، رفتار را از طریق فرایندهایی همچون تقلید و تکرار حرکت تغییر می‌دهد. برای اینکه یادگیری اتفاق بیفتد، به فرایندی به نام آموزش نیاز است و آموزش می‌تواند توسط مربی از طریق دستورالعمل‌های کلامی یا غیرکلامی برای یادگیرنده به‌وقوع بپیوندد. یکی از انواع آموزش غیرکلامی نمایش الگوست که در این روش فرد از طریق مشاهده یاد می‌گیرد. در این سبک آموزش، هدف استفاده از نمایش الگو به‌عنوان وسیله‌ای برای انتقال اطلاعات است. بنابراین، هدف از پژوهش حاضر بررسی تأثیر سه روش تمرین تقلیدی فوری، دوره‌ای و ترکیبی بر عملکرد فرم جونوکاتا بود. ازاین‌رو 45 دختر 12-9 سالۀ شهر تهران به‌صورت داوطلبانه در پژوهش حاضر شرکت داشتند و برحسب نوع مداخلة موردنظر به سه گروه 15 نفره تقسیم شدند. گروه تمرین تقلیدی فوری، دوره‌ای و ترکیبی هر یک دارای برنامۀ تمرینی تقلیدی ویژه با تکرارهای معینی بودند که به‌منظور کمّی کردن داده‌ها از مقیاس ده‌ارزشی کاتا استفاده شد. با برآورده شدن فرض توزیع داده‌ها و همگنی واریانس‌ها، نتیجة تحلیل واریانس با اندازه‌های تکراری نشان داد هر سه روش تمرین مشاهده‌ای به بهبود عملکرد کمک کرده‌اند و در آزمون یادداری و انتقال نیز این پیشرفت پایدار ماند (05/0P ≤). همچنین نتایج تحلیل واریانس چندمتغیره، برتری گروه تمرین تقلیدی فوری نسبت به دوره‌ای (0005/0P=) و ترکیبی (0005/0P =) را نشان داد. همچنین گروه تقلیدی ترکیبی در مقایسه با گروه تقلیدی دوره‌ای امتیازات بهتری را کسب کردند (0005/0P=) و این تفاوت در آزمون یادداری و انتقال نیز پایدار بود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effect of Immediate, Interspersed and Combined Imitation Training on Motor Performance and Learning in 9-12-Year-Old Novice Karate Kata Girls

نویسندگان [English]

  • Leila Ghandehari Alavijeh 1
  • shahzad Tahmasebi Boroujeni 2
  • Mehdi Shahbazi 2
1 . Ph.D. Student, Department of Motor Learning and Control, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Ferdowsi University, Mashhad, Iran
2 . Associate Professor, Department of Motor Behavior and Sport Psychology, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Theoretically, skill presentation will change behavior through processes such as imitation and motor repetition. If we want learning to happen, we need a process called training. Training can be delivered by the instructor through verbal and non–verbal instructions to the learner. One type of non–verbal instruction is pattern representation in which learner can learn through observation. The purpose of this model is to use the pattern representation as a means of transmitting information. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of three training methods: immediate, interspersed and combined imitation on Juno kata form performance. Therefore, 45 girls (9-12 years old) in Tehran city voluntarily participated in this study and were divided into three groups (each group 15 subjects) based on the type of intervention. Groups of immediate, interspersed and combined imitation had special imitation training programs with specific repetitions. In order to quantify data, 10-point Kata scale was used. As the data distribution and variance homogeneity were obtained, the result of analysis of variance with repeated measures showed that all three observational methods helped to improve the performance and this progress remained stable in the retention and transfer tests (P≤0.05). Also, the results of multivariate analysis of variance showed the priority of immediate imitation group on interspersed (P=0.0005) and combined (P=0.0005) imitation groups. The combined imitation group gained better scores than interspersed group (P=0.0005) and this differences was stable in retention and transfer tests.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Imitation training
  • Karate kata
  • observational learning
  • Performance
  • skilled pattern
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