آثار تمرین کم‌خطا بر یادگیری یک مهارت هدف‌گیری در نوجوانان کم‌توان ذهنی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دکتری رفتار حرکتی، دانشکدۀ تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه خوارزمی، تهران، ایران

2 استاد رفتار حرکتی، دانشکدۀ تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه خوارزمی، تهران، ایران

3 دانشیار رفتار حرکتی، دانشکدۀ علوم ورزشی دانشگاه اصفهان، اصفهان، ایران

4 دانشیار رفتار حرکتی، دانشکدۀ تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه الزهرا، تهران، ایران

چکیده

هدف پژوهش حاضر تعیین آثار تمرین کم‌خطا بر یادگیری یک مهارت هدف‌گیری در نوجوانان کم‌توان ذهنی بود. 40 نوجوان کم‌توان ذهنی با توجه به ضریب هوش و ظرفیت حافظۀ کاری در چهار گروه تمرینی جایگزین شدند. تکلیف پاس توپ مینی بسکتبال به هدفی با دایره‌های هم‌مرکز بود. شیوۀ تمرین گروه‌ها متفاوت از همدیگر بود. آزمودنی‌ها 200 کوشش تمرینی را در مرحلۀ اکتساب در پنج بلوک تمرینی اجرا کردند. آزمون‌های تکلیف منفرد و تکلیف دوگانه به‌صورت فوری، تأخیری 24 ساعته و تأخیری یک‌هفته‌ای اجرا شدند. تکلیف ثانویه شامل شمارش اعداد زوج روبه‌جلو بود. نتایج نشان داد گروه‌های که کمترین خطا و کمترین درگیری حافظۀ کاری در طول تمرین داشتند، هم در مرحلۀ اکتساب و هم در آزمون تکلیف منفرد و هم در آزمون تکلیف دوگانه نسبت به گروه‌های دیگر بهتر عمل کردند. این تحقیق با برآوردهای نظریۀ حلقۀ بستۀ آدامز، نظریۀ بازگماری و با برآوردهای ساختار نقطۀ چالش در خصوص وجود خطا در مرحلۀ اکتساب همخوانی دارد؛ اما این یافته‌ها با برآوردهای نظریۀ طرحواره مغایرت دارد. همچنین این یافته‌ها، شواهدی را برای تأیید ادعای ساختار نقطۀ چالش و نظریۀ بازگماری در خصوص افراد خاص (کم‌توان ذهنی) ارائه می‌دهد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effects of Errorless Practice on Learning an Aiming Skill in Mentally Retarded Adolescents

نویسندگان [English]

  • Alihossein Naseri 1
  • Abbas Bahram 2
  • Hamid Salehi 3
  • afkham daneshvar 4
1 PhD of Motor Behavior, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran
2 Professor of Motor Behavior, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran
3 Associate Professor of Motor Behavior, Faculty of Sport Sciences, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran
4 Associate Professor of Motor Behavior, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Alzahra University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

The aim of this study was to determine the effects of errorless practice on learning an aiming skill in mentally retarded adolescents. 40 mentally retarded adolescents were assigned to four practice groups based on intelligence quotient and working memory capacity. The task was to throw basketball mini balls into a target with concentric circles. The practice of groups was different from each other. The subjects performed 200 practice attempts in 5 practice blocks in the acquisition stage. Single task and dual task tests were implemented immediately, with 24-hour latency and one-week latency. The secondary task involved counting even numbers forward. The results showed that the groups with the least error and the least involvement in work memory during the practice outperformed other groups in acquisition stage, the single task test and dual task test. The findings of this study were consistent with the Adam's closed loop theory, the reinvestment theory, and the estimates of the challenge point framework regarding errors in the acquisition stage, but they were contradictory with the estimates of the schema theory. These findings also provided evidence to support the claim of the challenge point framework and the reinvestment theory about special individuals (mentally retarded).
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Errorless protocol
  • implicit motor learning
  • Intelligence Quotient
  • working memory

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