تمرین تحت فشار روانی و کانونی کردن توجه بر یادگیری ضربۀ بیلیارد

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری، گروه تربیت بدنی، دانشکدۀ علوم پایه، واحد علوم و تحقیقات، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران، ایران

2 دانشیار دانشکدۀ علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه الزهراء (س)، تهران، ایران

3 استاد دانشکدۀ علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه ارومیه، ارومیه، ایران

چکیده

شرایط روانی بر کانون توجه اثر داشته و نقش تعدیل‌کننده‌ای در تأثیرات آن بر اجرا و یادگیری حرکتی دارد. بنابراین پژوهش حاضر با هدف بررسی اثر تمرین تحت فشار روانی و کانونی کردن توجه با دستورالعمل آموزشی بر یادگیری ضربۀ بیلیارد انجام گرفت. شرکت‌کننده‌ها 48 دانشجوی دختر داوطلب (23-19 سال) بودند که به‌صورت تصادفی انتخاب شدند و در چهار گروه آزمایشی (توجه درونی و فشار کم و زیاد، توجه بیرونی و فشار کم و زیاد) جایگزین شده و بعد از پیش‌آزمون به مدت 8 جلسه به تمرین پرداختند. آزمون اکتساب در آخرین جلسۀ تمرین و آزمون‌های یادداری با تأخیر 2 و 10 روز بعد از آخرین جلسۀ تمرین انجام گرفت. دقت ضربات براساس فاصلۀ برخورد توپ از گودال امتیازگذاری شد. نتایج آزمون یو من – ویتنی برتری توجه درونی در آزمون اکتساب و یادداری با تأخیر 10 روز و برتری تمرین تحت فشار کم در آزمون یادداری با تأخیر 10 روز (05/0P<) و نتایج آزمون کروسکال - والیس و مقایسه‌های زوجی برتری اکتساب توجه درونی در فشار زیاد نسبت به توجه بیرونی در فشار زیاد و برتری یادداری تأخیری توجه درونی در فشار کم نسبت به توجه بیرونی در فشار زیاد را نشان داد (05/0P<). به‌نظر می‌رسد با توجه به نوع مهارت از نظر عدم تغییر شرایط محیطی و نیاز به دقت و توجه زیاد به‌خصوص در مراحل اولیۀ یادگیری، تمرین افراد مبتدی در شرایط فشار روانی کم و جهت‌دهی درونی توجه به یادداری تأخیری بیشتری منتج می‌شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Practice under Psychological Pressure and Attention Focusing on the Learning Billiard Shot

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mahdiyeh Gharelar 1
  • Masumeh Shojaei 2
  • hasan mohammadzadeh 3
1 PhD Student, Department of Physical Education, Faculty of Basic Sciences, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
2 Associate Professor, Faculty of Sport Sciences, Alzahra University, Tehran, Iran
3 Professor, Faculty of Sport Sciences, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran
چکیده [English]

Psychological states affect focus of attention and play a mediating role in its effect on motor performance and learning. The present study investigated the effect of practice under psychological pressure and attention focusing with instruction on learning billiard shot. Participants were 48 female volunteer students (19-23 years old) who were randomly selected and assigned to 4 experimental groups (internal focus under high and low pressure, external focus under high and low pressure). The groups practiced for 8 sessions after the pretest. Acquisition test was performed in the last session of practice, and the retention test was conducted with 2 and 10 days of delay after the last practice session. The accuracy of the shots was scored according to the distance of the ball from the pit. The results of U Mann-Whitney test showed priority of internal attention in the acquisition and 10-day delay retention tests and priority of practice under low pressure in 10-day delay retention test (P<0.05). The results of Kruskal–Wallis test and pairwise comparisons indicated priority of the acquisition of internal attention under high pressure on external attention under high pressure and the priority of delayed retention of internal attention under low pressure on external attention under high pressure (P<0.05). It seems that given the nature of skill in terms of unchanged environmental conditions and high accuracy and attention requirements especially in the early stages of learning, practice under low psychological pressure conditions and internal focusing will result in more delayed retention for novice people

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Arousal
  • Choking
  • focus of attention
  • Stress

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