تاثیر تمرینات یکپارچگی حسی–حرکتی با کمک والد مورد علاقه بر تعادل کودکان اوتیسم

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناس ارشد رفتار حرکتی، دانشکدة علوم انسانی، دانشگاه سمنان، سمنان، ایران

2 استادیا ر گروه رفتار حرکتی، دانشکدۀ علوم انسانی، دانشگاه سمنان، سمنان، ایران

چکیده

اختلالات فراگیر رشد که یکی از موارد بسیار شایع آن اوتیسم است شامل گروهی از اختلالات روانی هستند که مهارت‏های تعامل اجتماعی و مهارت‏های ارتباطی در آن‌ها تخریب ‌شده است. با توجه به بالا بودن هزینه‌های درمانی بیماری اوتیسم، به‌کارگیری روش‌های درمانی جایگزین و مناسب برای بیماران اوتیسم به‌خصوص کودکان و ارتقای سطح کیفی زندگیشان از اهمیت بالایی برخوردار است. هدف از پژوهش حاضر، بررسی تاثیر تمرینات یکپارچگی حسی-حرکتی با کمک والد مورد علاقه بر تعادل کودکان اوتیسم بود. بدین منظور 24 کودک اوتیسم در دامنه سنی 10-6 سال در این مطالعه شرکت کردند و به مدت 10 هفته تحت مداخله تمرینات یکپارچگی حسی-حرکتی قرار گرفتند. شرکتکنندگان در 2 مرحله پیشآزمون و پسآزمون از نظر مهارت تعادل براساس آزمون لک‌لک و آزمون پاشنه‌پنجه ارزیابی شدند. برای بررسی اختلاف بین گروه‌ها در پیش‌آزمون از تحلیلواریانس یک‌طرفه و به منظور تجزیهوتحلیل اثرات پروتکل پژوهش، آزمون تحلیلواریانس با اندازه‌گیری مکرر و آزمون تعقیبی شفه در سطح معناداری 0.05≥P به‌کار گرفته شد. نتایج نشان داد که تمرینات یکپارچگی حسی–حرکتی به طور معناداری موجب بهبود مهارت تعادل ایستا و پویا شده است و رویکرد والد-محور با اثرات مثبتی از طریق دستکاری ویژگی‌های روانشناختی مانند حس تعلق و همبستگی، انگیزش و اطمینان بالاتر دارای مزایای بهتری در بهبود تعادل پویا بوده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effect of Sensory-Motor Integration Training With Help of Interested Parent on Balance in Autism Children

نویسندگان [English]

  • Raziyeh Shakarami 1
  • Ahmad Nikravan 2
  • fatemeh rezaee 2
1 MSc. of Motor Behavior, Faculty of Humanities, University of Semnan, Semnan, Iran
2 Assistant Professor, Department of Motor Behavior, Faculty of Humanities, University of Semnan, Semnan, Iran
چکیده [English]

The Effect of Sensory-Motor Integration Training With Help of Interested Parent on Balance in Autism Children
Abstract
The pervasive development disorders is one of the most common cases is autism. This disorders include a group of psychological disorders in which social interaction skills and communication skills have been destroyed. With consider to high costs of treatment for autism, the use of alternative therapies suitable for autistic patients, especially children, and improving their quality of life is one of great importance. The aim of the present research is to determine the impact of course of sensory-motor integration training with help of interested parent to improve balance improvement of children suffering from autism. For this purpose, 24 autism children aged 6-10 years selected to this study and participated to sensory-motor training for 10 weeks. Participants asked to 2 stages of pre-test and post-test for balance skill. They were evaluated based on Laklak and Tandem Gait test. In order to analyze the effects of the research protocol, the analysis of variance with repeated measure and the scheffe post-hoc test was used at the significant level of P≤0.05. The results showed that sensory - motor integrity training significantly improved the static and dynamic balance skill and parent-centered approach have had higher benefits in improving dynamic balance with positive effects through manipulation of psychological features such as sense of belonging and solidarity, motivation and higher assurance.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • autism
  • balance
  • Sensory-Motor Integrity
  • Interested Parent
  • Training
  1. Matthew W, Suman M, Rachel K. Greene H, Cook E. Vaillancourt & John A. Feedforward and Feedback Motor Control Abnormalities Implicate Cerebellar Dysfunctions in Autism Spectrum. The Journal of Neuroscience. 2015; 4, 35(5), 2015–2025.
  2. Shahbazi S, Rahmani M, Heyrani A. The Effectiveness of Sensory-Motor Integration Activities on the Balance and Response Time of Children with Momentum Disorder. Journal of Rehabilitation. 2012: 9(4): 75-84. (Persian).
  3. Dowell L.R. " Mahone EM, Mostofsky SH. Associations of postural knowledge basic motor skill with dyspraxia in autism: Implication for abnormalities in distributed connectivity and motor learning". J Neuropsychology. 2009; 23(5): 563-560.
  4. Punakallio A. Balance abilities of workers in physically demanding jobs: With special reference to firefighters of different ages. J Sports Sci & Med. 2005; 4(8): 7-14.
  5. Molloy CA, Dietrich KN, Bhattacharya A. “Postural stability in children with autism spectrum disorder". J Autism Dev Disord. 2003; 33(6):643-652.
  6. Ghayor M, Sheikh M, Hemayattalab R, Memari A. The Effects of Spark Selected Exercises on the Balance and Coordination of Children with Autism Spectrum: A Semi-experimental Study. Growth and Motor Learning - Sports. 2018; 9(2): 173-180. (Persian).
  7.  Yimaz L, Yanardag M, Birkan B A, Bumin G. “Effects of swimming training on physical fitness and orientation in autism”. Pediarticles International. 2004; 46 (5): 624-626.
  8. Lin C, & Min Y. Effectiveness of sensory processing strategies on activity level in inclusive preschool classrooms. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment. 2012; 8 (4): 475–481.
  9. Sher B. Primary Therapy Initiative Fun techniques for developing social and motor skills in children with autism or sensory abnormalities. Translators Rezaei F, Keneshloo T. Semnan Semnan University. 2015.
  10. Jaco A, Mango D, Angelis F. “Unbalance between Excitation and Inhibition in Phenylketonuria, a Genetic Metabolic Disease Associated with Autism”. International journal of molecular sciences. Apr. 2017; 12 (5): 18-29.
  11. Cheatum BA, Hammond AA. Physical activity for learning and behaviour of children. Sharifiazar K, Saadatmand A, Morad AH (Persian). First edition. Azad University Publication. 2011; 12 (6):17-65.
  12. Mazurek MO, Vasa RA, Kalb N. Anxiety, sensory over-responsivity, and gastrointestinal problems Parham, LD., and Mailloux, Z. (2010). Sensory integration in Therapy for Children. Mosby/Elsevier, 6th Ed, 325–372in children with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Abnormal. 2012.
  13. Ben-Sasson A, Hen L, Fluss R. A meta-analysis of sensory modulation symptoms in individuals with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. 2009; 39 (8), 1–11.
  14. Hernandez LM, Rudie JD, Green SA, Bookheimer S, Dapretto M. Neural signatures of autism spectrum disorders: insights into brain network dynamics. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2015; 40(2), 171–189.
  15. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 5th ed. Washington, D.C: APA. 2013.
  16. Fletcher-Watson, S., McConnell, F., Manola, E., & McConachie, H. Interventions based on the Theory of Mind cognitive model for autism spectrum disorder (ASD).2014; Cochrane database of systematic reviews. DOI:10.1002/14651858.CD008785.pub2.
  17. Parham, LD, Mailloux Z. Sensory integration in Therapy for Children. Mosby/Elsevier, 6th ed. 2010; 9 (5): 325–372.
  18. Willardson J. Core Stability Training: Applications to sports conditioning programs. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 2007; 21 (3): 979-985.
  19. Poslawsky, IE. PARENTING A CHILD WITH AUTISM; Support for early parent-child interaction. Docete, Utrecht. 2013; 110-120.
  20. Koegel, R. L., Schreibman, L., Britten, K. R., Burke, J. C., & O’Neill, R. E. A comparison of parent  training to direct child treatment. In R. L. Koegel, A. Rincover, & A. L. Egel (Eds.), Educating and understanding autistic children. 1982; (pp. 260–279). San Diego, CA: College-Hill Press.
  21. Howlin P. Practitioner Review: Psychological and Educational Treatments for Autism. Journal of Child Psychol. Psychiat.1998; 39(3), pp. 307±322.
  22. Hung, Pang MY. Effects of group-based versus individual-based exercise training on motor performance in children with developmental coordination disorder: A randomized controlled pilot study. Journal of rehabilitation medicine. 2010; 42(2):122-138.
  23. Vakilizadeh N, Abedi A. Autism Children's Attention Autism Education. Education and Exercise. 2017; 16 (2) 38-46. (Persian).
  24. Johnson, B.L., Nelson, J.K. Fitness testing. Stork balance stand test practical measurements for evaluation in physical education. (1979). 4th Edition. Minneapolis.Burgess.
  25. Gladwell, V., Head, S., Haggar, M., Beneke, R. Does a program of Pilates improves chronic nonspecific low back pain? Journal of Sport Rehabilitation. (2006). 15: 338-350.
  26. Lahtinen, U. (1986). The development of the functional ability and physical activity of young people with mental retardation in different living settings: a follow-up study. Jyvaskyla, Finland: Studies in Sport Physical Education and Health.
  27. Fink BE. Sensory-motor integration activities: Therapy Skill Builders. 1989.
  28. Aydog E. Aydog ST. Cakci A. Doral MN. Dynamic postural stability in Blind Athletes Using the Biodex Stability System. INT JSPORTS MED. 2006; 27 (5): 415-418.
  29. Shumway-Cook A, Gruber W, Baldwin M, Liao S. The effect of multidimensional exercises on balance, Mobility and fall risk in community- dwelling older adults. Journal of the American Physical Therp Association. 1997; 7 (7): 46- 57.
  30. Roley S, Mailoux S, Parham Z, Sharon C. Sensory integration and praxis patterns in children with autism. American journal of occupational therapy. 2014; 69 (7); 16-26.