تأثیر بازخورد مقایسه‌ای- اجتماعی بر اکتساب و تحکیم یادگیری یک مهارت ادراکی- حرکتی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دکتری، گروه رفتار حرکتی، پردیس البرز، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

2 استاد، گروه رفتار حرکتی، دانشکدۀ تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

3 دانشیار، گروه رفتار حرکتی، دانشکدۀ تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

چکیده

تحقیق حاضر با هدف تعیین تأثیر بازخورد مقایسه‌ای- اجتماعی بر اکتساب و تحکیم یادگیری یک مهارت ادراکی-حرکتی در دانش‌آموزان پسر دبیرستانی انجام گرفت. در این تحقیق 36 دانش‌آموز دبیرستانی به‌عنوان نمونه‌های آماری به‌صورت تصادفی در سه گروه 12 نفری بازخورد مقایسه- اجتماعی مثبت، منفی و واقعی قرار گرفتند. پس از ثبت امتیازات پیش‌آزمون، در مرحلۀ اکتساب که پنج روز به طول انجامید، آزمودنی‌ها در هر روز تعداد ده بلوک سه‌تایی سرویس بلند بدمینتون را اجرا کردند که بعد از هر بلوک بازخورد میانگین امتیازات خود را با توجه به گروهی که متعلق به آن بودند، به‌صورت مثبت (بالاتر از امتیاز واقعی)، منفی (پایین‌تر از امتیاز واقعی) و واقعی (امتیاز واقعی) دریافت کردند. آزمون تحکیم یادگیری نیز پس از 72 ساعت بی‌تمرینی همانند پیش‌آزمون اجرا شد. پس از بررسی نرمال بودن داده‌ها و همگنی واریانس‌ها به‌منظور تحلیل داده‌ها از آزمون‌های تحلیل واریانس با اندازه‌گیری مکرر، تحلیل واریانس یکطرفه و آزمون تعقیبی توکی در سطح معناداری 05/0≥ P  استفاده شد. نتایج نشان داد که در مرحلۀ اکتساب، تمرین موجب بهبود عملکرد گروه‌ها شد، اما بین عملکرد گروه‌های بازخورد مثبت، منفی و واقعی در این مرحله تفاوت معناداری مشاهده نشد. میزان تحکیم یادگیری نیز در گروه بازخورد مثبت به‌طور معناداری بهتر از گروه‌های دیگر بود. یافته‌های تحقیق بیانگر این است که بازخورد مقایسه‌ای- اجتماعی مثبت در تحکیم یادگیری یک مهارت ادراکی- حرکتی همانند سرویس بلند هدفدار بدمینتون مؤثر است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effect of Social-Comparative Feedback on Acquisition and Consolidation of a Perceptual-Motor Skill

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ali Azhari 1
  • Rasoul Hemayat Talab 2
  • Mahmoud Skeikh 3
  • Elahe Arab Ameri 3
1 PhD, Department of Motor Behavior, Alborz Campus, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
2 Professor, Department of Motor Behavior, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
3 Associate Professor, Department of Motor Behavior, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

The aim of this study was to determine the effect of social-comparative feedback on acquisition and consolidation of a perceptual-motor skill in high school male students. In this study, 36 high school students as the sample were randomly assigned to three groups (each group 12 subjects): positive, negative and veridical social-comparative feedback. Pretest scores were recorded. Acquisition phase lasted five days and each subjects daily performed 10 blocks of 3 trials of badminton long serve. After each block, they received the feedback of their mean scores in the form of positive (higher than the actual score), negative (lower than the actual score) and veridical (the actual score) given the group to which they belonged. After 72 hours of detraining, consolidation test was performed under the same conditions as the pretest. After determining the data normality and homogeneity of variances, ANOVA with repeated measures, one-way ANOVA and Tukey post hoc test were used to analyze data at the significance level of P≤0.05. The results showed that training improved the performance of groups in the acquisition phase. But there was no significant difference in the performance of the groups. The consolidation of positive feedback group was significantly better than the other groups. These findings suggest that positive social-comparative feedback affects the consolidation of a perceptual-motor skill such as targeted badminton long serve skill.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Acquisition
  • Badminton Serve
  • Consolidation
  • motivational feedback
  • perceptual-motor skill
  • social-comparative feedback
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