تأثیر دستورالعمل کانون توجه بیرونی و حمایت خودمختاری بر یادگیری مهارت هدف‌گیری کودکان کم‌توان ذهنی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 . کارشناس ارشد، گروه رفتار حرکتی، دانشکدۀ علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز، اهواز، ایران

2 دانشیار رفتار حرکتی، گروه رفتار حرکتی، دانشکدۀ علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز، اهواز، ایران

3 . استادیار رفتار حرکتی، گروه رفتار حرکتی، دانشکدۀ علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز، اهواز، ایران

چکیده

هدف از پژوهش حاضر، بررسی تأثیر دستورالعمل کانون توجه بیرونی و حمایت خودمختاری بر یادگیری مهارت هدف‌گیری کودکان کم‌توان ذهنی بود. بدین‌منظور، از بین تمامی کودکان کم‌توان ذهنی شهر اهواز، 48 کودک 14-10 ساله (میانگین سنی 2/1±81/11 سال) به روش نمونه‌گیری در دسترس انتخاب شدند و براساس نمرات پیش‌آزمون (10 کوشش) در چهار گروه توجه بیرونی، حمایت خودمختاری، توجه بیرونی+حمایت خودمختاری و کنترل جای گرفتند. تکلیف شامل پرتاب کیسة لوبیا به وزن 100 گرم به سمت هدفی بود که در فاصلۀ دو متری از شرکت‌کنندگان بر روی دیوار نصب شده بود. شرکت‌کنندگان در مرحلۀ اکتساب 40 کوشش شامل پنج بلوک هشت‌کوششی را انجام دادند. ده دقیقه پس از آخرین بلوک اکتساب، شرکت‌کنندگان 10 پرتاب را به‌عنوان پس‌آزمون انجام دادند. 48 ساعت پس از مرحلۀ اکتساب، آزمون یادداری (10 کوشش) با شرایطی دقیقاً مشابه با پیش‌آزمون برای بررسی تأثیرات یادگیری از شرکت‌کنندگان به‌عمل آمد. برای تحلیل داده‌ها از آزمون تحلیل واریانس مرکب 5Í2Í2 در مرحلۀ اکتساب و آزمون تحلیل واریانس دوراهه 2Í2 در مرحلۀ یادداری از طریق نرم‌افزار SPSS22 و در سطح معناداری 05/0≥P استفاده شد. نتایج نشان داد که هر چهار گروه طی بلوک‌های تمرینی، بهبود معناداری در عملکرد داشته‌اند. گروه توجه بیرونی+حمایت خودمختاری نیز بالاترین نمرات را در مرحلۀ اکتساب کسب کرد (05/0≥P). در آزمون یادداری نیز گروه توجه بیرونی+حمایت خودمختاری بهترین عملکرد را به نمایش گذاشت (05/0≥P). ازاین‌رو پیشنهاد می‌شود برای بهبود عملکرد و یادگیری مهارت هدف‌گیری کودکان کم‌توان ذهنی از ترکیب توجه بیرونی و حمایت خودمختاری استفاده شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effect of External Focus of Attention Instruction and Autonomy Support on Learning of an Aiming Task in Mentally Retarded Children

نویسندگان [English]

  • Seyed mohammadreza Mousavi 1
  • Nahid Shetab Boushehri 2
  • Rasool Abedanzadeh 3
1 . MSc, Department of Motor Behavior, Faculty of Sport Sciences, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran
2 Associate Professor of Motor Behavior, Department of Motor Behavior, Faculty of Sport Sciences, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran
3 Assistant Professor of Motor Behavior, Department of Motor Behavior, Faculty of Sport Sciences, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran
چکیده [English]

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of external focus of attention instruction and autonomy support on learning of an aiming task in mentally retarded children. Therefore, 48 children (age range: 10-14 years, mean age 11.81+1.2 years) were selected from all mentally retarded children of Ahvaz city by convenient sampling method. Participants performed 10 trials as a pretest and according to their scores of the pretest, they were assigned to four groups: external attention, autonomy support, external attention-autonomy support and control. The task consisted of throwing 100-gram beanbags into a goal that was mounted at a distance of 2 meters from the participants on the wall. Participants performed 40 trials including 5 blocks, 8 trials each block in the acquisition phase. 10 minutes after the last acquisition block, the participants performed 10 trials as the posttest. 48 hours after the acquisition phase, retention test (10 trials) was performed to examine the learning effects of the participants under the same conditions as the pretest. The data were analyzed by mix ANOVA 2×2×5 in the acquisition phase and two-way ANOVA 2×2 in the retention phase with SPSS22 at significance level of P≤0.05. The results showed that all four groups had a significant improvement in their performance during the practice blocks. The external attention+autonomy support group gained the best scores in the acquisition phase (P≤0.05). The external attention+ autonomy support group presented the greatest performance in the retention test (P≤0.05). Therefore, it is suggested that a combination of autonomy support and external attention should be used to improve the performance and learning of aiming in mentally retarded children.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • aiming task
  • Autonomy Support
  • external attention
  • Mentally retarded children
  • retention
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