انسداد تحت‌فشار: اثر سطح مهارت و نوع فشار بر اجرای مهارت دریبل فوتبال

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناسی ارشد، گروه رفتار حرکتی، دانشکدۀ علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه اصفهان، اصفهان، ایران

2 . استادیار، گروه رفتار حرکتی، دانشکدۀ علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه اصفهان، اصفهان، ایران

3 استاد، گروه رفتار حرکتی، دانشکدۀ علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه اصفهان، اصفهان، ایران

چکیده

هدف این پژوهش تعیین اثر سطح مهارت بر اجرای مهارت دریبل فوتبال در شرایط انسداد تحت‌فشار بود. 20 بازیکن ماهر عضو تیم فوتبال دانشگاه و 20 دانشجوی مبتدی تربیت‌بدنی عمومی (فوتبال) را اخذ کرده بودند (دامنه سنی 25-18 سال) در این تحقیق شرکت کردند. با استفاده از آزمون ایگلی مهارت دریبل فوتبال در دو مرحله بدون فشار و در شرایط فشار ترکیبی اجرا شد. در پژوهش حاضر برای ایجاد شرایط فشار از ترکیب دو نوع فشار، ایجاد رقابت بین شرکت‌کنندگان و دوربین فیلم‌برداری استفاده گردید. به‌منظوراطمینان از اعمال شرایط فشار، سطح اضطراب رقابتی با استفاده از نسخه دوم سیاهه اضطراب رقابتی-حالتی و تعداد ضربان قلب شرکت‌کنندگان اندازه‌گیری شد. برای تحلیل داده‌ها، از روش تحلیل واریانس با اندازه‌گیری‌های مکرر برای مقایسه میانگین امتیازات و همچنین از آزمون t مستقل برای مقایسه میانگین امتیازات دو گروه در شرایط بدون فشار و آزمون t همبسته جهت مقایسه میانگین امتیازات دو گروه در شرایط بدون فشار و تحت فشار ترکیبی استفاده شد (05/0P≤). نتایج نشان داد عملکرد گروه ماهر در شرایط فشار افت و عملکرد گروه مبتدی در شرایط فشار بهبود یافت. این احتمال وجود دارد که شرایط فشار در گروه مبتدی سبب افزایش تلاش برای اجرای بهتر و در نتیجه بهبود عملکرد شد. همین‌طور شاید بتوان گفت نقش انگیزشی شرایط فشار باعث بهبود عملکرد در افراد مبتدی شده است. در افراد ماهر نیز احتمال می‌رود درگیر سازوکارهای تمرکز بر مهارت می‌شوند و ظرفیت کمتری از منبع توجه را در اختیار اجرای مهارت قرار می‌دهند که شواهدی تجربی در تأیید تئوری نظارت آشکار می‌باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Choking under pressure: The effect of skill level and type of pressure on performance of soccer dribbling skill.

نویسندگان [English]

  • Abolfazl Esmaili 1
  • shila safavi 2
  • Ahmadreza Movahedi 3
1 MSc, Motor Behavior Department, Sport Sciences Faculty, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran
2 Assistant Professor, Motor Behavior Department, Sport Sciences Faculty, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran
3 Professor, Motor Behavior Department, Sport Sciences Faculty, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran
چکیده [English]

The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of skill level on the performance of dribbling skills in soccer choking under pressure conditions. For this purpose, 20 skilled players of the university football team and twenty beginner students in football (with age range 18-25) participated in the study. The Egilly soccer dribble skill test was performed in two stages: without pressure condition and combined pressure condition. In the present study, the combination of two types of pressure, competition between participants and camcorders were used to create pressure condition. In order to ensure that the pressure conditions were applied, the level of competitive anxiety was measured using the second version of the competitive state anxiety and the heart rate of the participants. To analyze the data, repeated measures analysis of variance was used for comparing the mean scores and independent t-test was used to compare the mean scores of two groups without pressure condition. The results showed that the performance of the skilled group, decrease under pressure conditions and the performance of the beginner group improved under pressure conditions. It is possible that the pressure conditions in the beginner group would increase the effort to perform better and thus improve performance. It can also be said that the motivational role of pressure conditions has improved performance in beginners. In skilled persons, they are also likely to engage in skill-centered mechanisms that give less skill to the source of attention which is empirically evident in verifying the explicit review theory.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Choking
  • Performance
  • Dribble football
  • skill level
  • Pressure
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