تأثیر دستورالعمل‌های کانون توجه بر حافظة فضایی کودکان

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار، دانشکدة علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه بین المللی امام خمینی، قزوین، ایران

2 دانشیار، گروه رفتار حرکتی، دانشکدة تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی،دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

3 استاد، گروه رفتار حرکتی، دانشکدة تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی،دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

چکیده

هدف تحقیق حاضر بررسی تأثیر دستورالعمل‌های کانون توجه بر حافظة فضایی کودکان بود. به این منظور 30 نفر از کودکان دختر مدارس ابتدایی سطح شهر تهران با میانگین سنی 12-7 سال و براساس نمونه‌گیری در دسترس انتخاب شدند. آزمودنی‌ها به‌طور تصادفی به سه سطح کانون توجه (درونی، بیرونی و عدم کانون توجه) تقسیم شدند. در گروه توجه درونی، آزمودنی‌ها بر حرکت دست تمرکز کردند. کانون گروه توجه بیرونی معطوف بر مسیر حرکت و هدف بود و به گروه کنترل هیچ‌گونه تأییدی مبنی بر کانون توجه داده نشد. آزمودنی‌ها در مراحل تمرین (در مجموع 50 کوشش) و آزمون‌های اکتساب، یادداری و انتقال شرکت کردند. مرحلة اکتساب در پنج روز متوالی صورت گرفت. ابزار مورد استفاده برای سنجش حافظۀ فضایی، دستگاه حرکت خطی (مدل LM-01) بود. آزمون تحلیل کوواریانس و آزمون تعقیبی بونفرونی در سطح  05/0 P <استفاده شد. نتایج تحلیل کوواریانس در آزمون‌های اکتساب (005/0=P)، یادداری (000/0=P) و انتقال (003/0=P) معنادار بود. نتایج آزمون تعقیبی بونفرونی نشان داد که در تمامی مراحل عملکرد گروه توجه بیرونی به‌دلیل تغییرپذیری کلی کمتر به‌طور معناداری بهتر از گروه توجه درونی و گروه کنترل بود. با وجود این، بین گروه توجه درونی و گروه کنترل اختلاف معناداری وجود نداشت. با توجه به نتایج تحقیق حاضر، کانون توجه بیرونی در ارتباط با کودکان از مزایای بالاتری نسبت به کانون توجه درونی برخوردار بود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of attentional focus instructions on spatial memory in children

نویسندگان [English]

  • Fatemeh Mirakhori 1
  • Elahe Arabameri 2
  • Fazlolah Bagherzadeh 2
  • Rasool Hemayattalab 3
1 Assistant Professor, Department of Sport Sciences, Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin, Iran
2 Associate Professor, Motor Behavior, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
3 Professor, Motor Behavior, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of attentional focus instructions on spatial memory in children.Thirty girl students with the mean age from 7 to 12 years were selected by convenience sampling from elementary schools in Tehran. Participants were randomly divided into three attentional focus groups (internal, external, control). Participants in the internal focus group were asked to focus their attention on the movements of their hand, whereas participants in the external focus group were asked to focus their attention to the movement path and target. Control group participants received no focus instructions. Acquisition phase lasted five consecutive days. The instrument used for measuring spatial memory was linear movement apparatus (LM-01 model). Analysis of Covariance and Bonferoni tests were used at p

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • external attention
  • internal attention
  • linear movement apparatus
  • total variability
  • Spatial memory
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