تأثیر توانمندسازی شناختی بر حافظۀ کاری و یادگیری مشاهده‌ای مهارت حرکتی در کودکان

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار، دانشکدۀ علوم ورزشی و تندرستی، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران

2 دانشیار، دانشکدۀ علوم ورزشی و تندرستی، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران

3 کارشناسی ارشد دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، دانشکدۀ علوم ورزشی و تندرستی، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران

چکیده

هدف کلی تحقیق بررسی تأثیر توانمندسازی شناختی بر حافظۀ کاری و یادگیری مشاهده‌ای مهارت پرتاب دارت کودکان بود. 40 دانش‌آموز 11-10 ساله به‌صورت در دسترس انتخاب شدند. در مرحلۀ اول توانمندسازی شناختی و در مرحلۀ دوم یادگیری مشاهده‌ای پرتاب دارت انجام گرفت. در مرحلۀ اول، ابتدا پیش‌آزمون شناختی گرفته شد، براساس سن و نمرات پیش‌آزمون افراد به دو گروه 20 نفرۀ همگن تمرین شناختی و بدون تمرین شناختی تقسیم شدند. به گروه شناختی 8 جلسۀ 45 دقیقه‌ای تمرینات توانمندسازی شناختی داده شد. سپس افراد در پس‌آزمون شناختی شرکت کردند. آزمون شناختی با استفاده از نرم‌افزار کرسی بلک (حافظۀ کاری) انجام گرفت. در مرحلۀ دوم، هر کدام از گروه‌های مرحلۀ اول به دو گروه 10 نفری مشاهده‌ای+بدنی و بدنی تقسیم شدند. پس از شرکت در پیش‌آزمون پرتاب دارت، مرحلۀ تمرین دارت (سه جلسۀ 20 پرتابی) به‌صورت مشاهده‌ای و بدنی بود. گروه مشاهده‌ای+بدنی علاوه‌بر پرتاب ویدئو مدل ماهر پرتاب دارت را مشاهده کردند. پس‌آزمون شناختی در انتها گرفته شد. از آزمون تحلیل واریانس با اندازه‌گیری تکراری2*3 و 2*4 استفاده شد. نتایج نشان داد که حافظۀ کاری گروه شناختی به‌طور معناداری بهتر از گروه غیرشناختی بود. گروه شناختی+ مشاهده‌ای+ بدنی در پس‌آزمون دارت به‌طور معناداری بهتر از سایر گروه‌ها عمل کرد. به‌نظر می‌رسد که توانمندسازی شناختی موجب تسهیل یادگیری از طریق مشاهده می‌شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effect of Cognitive Empowerment on Working Memory and Observational Learning of a Motor Skill in Children

نویسندگان [English]

  • Maryam Kavyani 1
  • بهروز عبدلی 2
  • Reza Ebrahimi 3
1 Assistant Professor, Faculty of Sport Sciences and Health, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran
2 Associate Professor, Faculty of Sport Sciences and Health, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran
3 MSc, Faculty of Sport Sciences and Health, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

The main aim of this study was to investigate the effect of cognitive empowerment on working memory and observational learning of dart throwing skill in children. 40 students aged between 10 and 11 were selected by convenience sampling method. In the first phase, cognitive empowerment was performed and in the second phase observational learning of dart throwing skill was performed. In the first phase, the cognitive pretest was performed and the subjects were divided into two homogenies groups (each group 20 subjects): cognitive practice and no cognitive practice based on their age and pretest scores. The cognitive group received 8 sessions (45 minutes per session) of cognitive empowerment practice. Then, both groups received cognitive posttest. The cognitive tests were performed using Corsiblack (working memory) software. In the second phase of the study, each of the first phase groups were divided into 2 groups (10 subjects each group): observational + physical and physical. After dart throwing pretest, dart throwing was practiced in the form of observational and physical (3 sections of 20 throwing). The observational + physical group watched the skilled model of dart throwing through video in addition to dart throwing. Then, posttest was performed at the end of the second phase. Analysis of variance with repeated measures of 2 * 3 and 4 * 2 was used. The results showed that the working memory of cognitive group was significantly better than non-cognitive group. The cognitive + observational + physical group performed significantly better in the dart posttest than the other groups. It seems that cognitive empowerment can facilitate learning trough observation.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • administrative functions
  • cognitive empowerment
  • observational learning
  • working memory
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