اثر نوع دستورالعمل توجه، بازخورد و خودمختاری بر یادگیری حرکتی کودکان

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناس ارشد رفتار حرکتی، دانشکدة علوم ورزشی دانشگاه اصفهان، اصفهان،ایران

2 . استادیار گروه رفتار حرکتی، انشگاه علوم ورزشی دانشگاه اصفهان، اصفهان،ایران

چکیده

استفاده از دستورالعمل‌های توجه، از متغیرهای مهم در روند یادگیری مهارت حرکتی است. هدف از این مطالعه، بررسی اثر نوع دستورالعمل‌های توجه، بازخورد و خودمختاری در یادگیری حرکتی کودکان بود. بدین‌منظور از 36 کودک (میانگین سنی 45/0 ± 05/7 سال) خواسته شد که با دست غالب خود، تکلیف بولینگ را انجام دهند. آنها به 3 گروه (توجه بیرونی، توجه درونی و کنترل) تقسیم شدند. شرکت‌کنندگان در مرحلة اکتساب، براساس بازخورد و شرایط انتخاب (خودمختاری)، تکلیف خود را در 4 حالت به شکل موازنة متقابل انجام دادند. 24 ساعت بعد از مرحلة اکتساب در هریک از حالات (1. بدون دریافت بازخورد و بدون داشتن شرایط خودمختاری، 2. دادن بازخورد، 3. داشتن خودمختاری، 4. دادن بازخورد و داشتن خودمختاری)، آزمون یادداری انجام گرفت. داده‌ها با استفاده از آزمون‌های واریانس و کوواریانس تجزیه‌وتحلیل شد. نتایج آزمون‌ها نشان داد نوع تمرکز توجه بدون دادن بازخورد و خودمختاری از دقت بیشتری در بولینگ برخوردار بود، به‌طوری‌که گروه توجه بیرونی در حالت بدون داشتن شرایط خودمختاری نتایج بهتری را کسب کردند. همچنین گروه توجه بیرونی در حالت خودمختاری، یادگیری بهتری نسبت به سایر شرایط داشتند. مطالعة حاضر، تأثیر مفید نوع دستورالعمل توجه، بازخورد و خودمختاری در یادگیری حرکتی کودکان را نشان نداد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The effect of attention instruction type, feedback and autonomy on children’s motor learning

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ameneh Honarmand 1
  • shila safavi 2
1 Motor Behavior Department-Sport Science Faculty-University of Isfahan
2 Motor Behavior Department-Sport Science Faculty-University of Isfahan-Isfahan
چکیده [English]

The use of attention instructions type is one of the most important variables in the process of motor skill learning. The aim of this study was to examine the combined effects of attention instruction type feedback, and autonomy on children's motor learning. For this purpose thirty-six children (M±SD 7.05 ± 0.45 years) were asked to perform a bowling task with their dominant hand. They divided into 3 groups (external focus, the internal focus of attention, and control). Participants in the acquisition phase practiced tasks in a counterbalanced order based on feedback and choice (Autonomy) conditions and after 24 hours they take part in retention test without feedback and instructional attention and autonomy .The acquisition phase in each condition(1-without feedback and autonomy,2-with feedback,3- with autonomy,4-with feedback, and autonomy). The data were analyzed by ANOVA and ANCOVA. The results of the retention phase showed that the type of attention focus without feedback and autonomy had a greater bowling accuracy and the external focus of attention with autonomy was better than other conditions. The present study did not show the beneficial effects of attention instruction type feedback, and autonomy on children's motor learning.The results showed that motor learning in children was different from adults.Based on our results in children external attention focus and feedback with autonomy have not similar effects with adult motor learning.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Attention instruction
  • Autonomy
  • Children
  • Feedback
  • motor learning
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