اثر انسداد تحت فشار بر عملکرد پیش‌بینی شمشیربازان نخبه و مبتدی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 . دانشجوی دکتری رفتار حرکتی، دانشکدة تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی پردیس بین‌المللی دانشگاه خوارزمی، تهران، ایران

2 . استادیار، گروه رفتار حرکتی، دانشکدة تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی دانشگاه خوارزمی، تهران، ایران

3 دانشیار، گروه رفتار حرکتی، دانشکدة تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

چکیده

قابلیت پیش‌بینی حرکات حریف قبل از اجرای آنها، از اجزای کلیدی کسب موفقیت در رقابت‌های ورزشی است. هدف از پژوهش حاضر، تعیین اثر انسداد تحت فشار بر عملکرد پیش‌بینی و مقایسة آن در شمشیربازان نخبه و مبتدی بود. در این پژوهش نیمه‌تجربی، آزمودنی‌ها 15 ورزشکار نخبة تیم ملی شمشیربازی جوانان (120-16 سال) و 15 نفر از دانشجویان دانشگاه تهران (22- 18 سال) بودند که به‌عنوان افراد مبتدی در دو گروه به‌صورت نمونه‌های در دسترس قرار گرفتند. قبل از انجام آزمون 15 کلیپ از 100 ویدئو کلیپ از ضربات مختلف حمله به نقاط مختلف بدن شمشیرباز توسط دو نفر از اعضای خبرة تیم ملی شمشیربازی ایران اجرا و ضبط شد. پس از توقف نمایش هر ویدئوکلیپ (پیش از برخورد شمشیر با بدن حریف)، تصویر پاسخنامه روی صفحة نمایش ظاهر می‌شد و آزمودنی‌ها می‌بایست محل فرود ضربة شمشیر را پیش‌بینی می‌کردند. پژوهش حاضر در دو شرایط فشار بالا و طبیعی انجام گرفت. شرایط فشار بالا با حضور مربی تیم ملی به‌عنوان ارزیاب و در شرایط بدون فشار نیز کوشش‌ها بدون حضور ارزیاب انجام گرفت. نتایج تحلیل واریانس عاملی مرکب نشان داد که اثر اصلی شرایط و گروه، معنا‌دار بود، اما اثر تعاملی شرایط و گروه معنا‌دار نیست. نتایج آزمون تعقیبی بونفرونی نیز نشان داد که بازیکنان در شرایط طبیعی نسبت به شرایط تحت فشار از عملکرد پیش‌بینی بهتری برخوردارند؛ همچنین بازیکنان ماهر نسبت به مبتدی در هر دو شرایط، عملکرد پیش‌بینی بهتری داشتند (05/0 >P)، اما به‌طور کلی، انسداد تحت فشار موجب کاهش عملکرد پیش‌بینی شمشیربازان نخبه و مبتدی می‌شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effect of Choking under Pressure on the Predictive Performance of Elite and Novice Fencers

نویسندگان [English]

  • jafar Belali voshmehsara 1
  • saeed arsham 2
  • shahab parvinpour 2
  • Fazlolah Bagherzadeh 3
1 The Effect of Choking under Pressure on the Predictive Performance of Elite and Novice Fencers
2 . Assistant Professor, Department of Motor Behavior, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, International Campus, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran
3 Associate Professor, Department of Motor Behavior, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

One of the key factors for success in sport competitions is the ability to predict the movements of an opponent before performing them. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of choking under pressure on predictive performance and to compare it between elite and novice fencers. In this quasi-experimental study, the subjects included 15 elite athletes of the youth fencing national team (16-20 years old) and 15 students from University of Tehran (18-22 years old) as novice athletes who were assigned to two groups by convenience sampling method. Prior to the test, 15 clips out of 100 video clips of different attacks on different parts of the fencers' body were performed and recorded by two professional members of the Iran National Fencing Team. After each video clip was stopped (before the sword hit the opponent's body), an answer sheet appeared on the screen and the subjects had to predict the location where the sword hit the opponent. The present study was conducted under high and normal pressure conditions. The high pressure condition was applied by the presence of a national team coach as the evaluator and in the non-pressure condition, the efforts were made without the presence of the evaluator. The results of mixed factor analysis of variance showed that the main effect of condition and group was significant but the interactive effect of condition and group was not significant. Bonferroni post hoc test results also showed that those players who were in normal condition had better predictive performance than those who were under the pressure condition; also, elite players had better predictive performance than novices in both conditions (P<0.05). But generally, choking under pressure decreases predictive performance in both elite and novice fencers.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Choking under pressure
  • elite
  • fencer
  • novice
  • Prediction
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